Studies PSYA2

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Asch (1935)

Aim: To investigate whether participants conform to social presuure/influence  incorrect answers when correct answer is clear..

Method: Lab expeiment. Swarthmore college USA 123 male students. Thought it was a vision test. Particiapnt were in groups of 8 (7 conferderates). Took turn to call out answer to line test, real participant last or second to last.  12/18 critical trials. 

Results: 37% conformed on crtitcal trials. 25% didn't conform. 75% conformed at least once.

Conlusion: Strange situations, strong gourp pressure to conform. More liekly if unanimous. Conform because of social influence-fear of rejection, wnat to fit in or informaitional influence- think that participants are better informed, doubt their own judgement.

Evaluation:  :(-population validity, deception :)-Repication, Debriefing

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Milgram (1963)

Aim: To investigate the extent to which 'normal' member of the public would obey an unjust order from an authority figure to inflict pain and dis comfort in another.

Method: Yale University. 40 malee students. Advertising in newpaper, volunteer sample- belive lab experiment 'learning and memory'. Told even chance fo teacher or learner. One conferderate-learner (Mr Wallace-heart condition) one real participant-teacher. Different rooms teacher with experimenter. Word association test if wrogn shcok and increase voltage. 15-450 volts. Fake shocks. Prods-please continue, the experiment requires you to continue, it is absolutely essential that you continue, you have no other choice but to continue.    

Results: All 300 volts. 65% 450 volts. participants showed signs of stress-seizures.

Conlusion: Ordinary poeple will obey orders to hurt someone else, even if it means acting against their consciences. Ordinary people liekly to follow orders from authority figure. Obedience to authority ingrained in us.

Evaluation:  :(-Internal validity,ecological validity,deception, consent, withdrawal, potection. :)-reliability

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Sherif (1935)

Aim: To investigate the effect of majority social influene in an ambiguous situation.

Method: Condition1-Participants led into completely dark room. Instructed to look a dot of light in corner of the room.  Estimated how far and which direction light was moving- autokinetic effect. Average estimate worked out over trials. Condition2-Participants in groups of 3 who had given different judgements in condition 1. Estimated how far and whcih direction light moved.

Results: Individual judgement made in conditon one were replaced with second judgement closer to other group memebers. By trial three group norm had been created.

Conlusion: When making judgements in group and in ambiguous situations we're influenced by opinions opf others and conform to attitudes and behaviours. Rohrer et al (1954) particpants up to a year later most used group judgement instead of own judgement- Internalised the goup decision.

Evaluation:  :(-Ecological validity, decption :)-Debriefing, Ease of replication

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Kiecolt-Glaser (1984)

Aim: To study the effect of examination stress on students' ability to respond o the Epstein-Barr virus causing fatigue and other physical problems.

Method: Natural experiment.75 first year medical students. Blood smaples one month before examinations and first day (after two pages). Teseted for natural killer cell activity. Colected questionnaire data on both samples, obtaining information on psychiatric symptoms, lonelieness and life events.

Results: Significant reduction in immune system. Negative correlation between stress and number of Nk cells. Lonely, experiencing stressful life events or psychiatric symptons-depression or anxiety shoed greater supression of immuen system than social support stduents. 

Conclusion: Examination stress affected the ability of the immune system to respond to the virus. Other psychological factors were also associated with impared functioning of immune system. 


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