Characteristics of an Exchange Membrane
- Thin exchange membrane, so its easy for particles to get through.
- Large Surface area so lots can get through at once.
- Moist surface for particles to dissolve into so they can pass through.
- Permeable wall for particles to get through.
- Good blood supply to maintain concentration gradient.
Function:- Hold tubes up and open to allow air to flow through. Allow increase and decrease in air pressure.
Distribution:- Bronchi and Trachea support.
Ciliated Epithelial Cells
Function:- Cilia on cells sweeps mucus up to the back of the throat.
Distribution:- Inside of the trachea.
Function:- Secretes mucus. Forms a protective layer over epithelium preventing cells from drying out.
Distribution:- Trachea Wall.
Function:- Contracts and relaxes to widen trachea when doing exercise. Involuntary muscle.
Distribution:- Walls of trachea, bronchi and bronchioles.
Function:- Help decrease volume in lungs by coiling back into shape after they were stretched.
Distribution:- In the alveoli.
Vital Capacity:- Maximum volume of air that can be breathed out after breathing in as deeply as possible.
Tidal Volume:- Volume of air breathed in or out during a single breath.
Breathing rate:- Mean number of breaths per minute.
Ventilation rate:- Volume of air moved into and out of the lungs per minute.
Expiratory reserve volume:- The maximum volume of air over and above the tidal volume, that can be breathed out.
Inspiratory reserve volume:- The maximum volume of air over and above the tidal volume that can be breathed in.