AS Biology F211 Membranes and Transport

AS Biology F211 Membranes and Transport. 

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  • Created by: Pheebie
  • Created on: 15-10-11 15:19

Characteristics of an Exchange Membrane

  • Thin exchange membrane, so its easy for particles to get through.
  • Large Surface area so lots can get through at once.
  • Moist surface for particles to dissolve into so they can pass through.
  • Permeable wall for particles to get through.
  • Good blood supply to maintain concentration gradient.
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Cartillage

Function:- Hold tubes up and open to allow air to flow through. Allow increase and decrease in air pressure.

Distribution:- Bronchi and Trachea support.

Diagram:-        

                                        (http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSdeD3xovi495pPs9onHDmwGmcFtykdFe7RfwOv0SuAU1Xy0_2vAiQ0LO1o) 

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Ciliated Epithelial Cells

Function:- Cilia on cells sweeps mucus up to the back of the throat.

Distribution:- Inside of the trachea.

Diagram:- 

                             

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Goblet Cells

Function:- Secretes mucus. Forms a protective layer over epithelium preventing cells from drying out.

Distribution:- Trachea Wall.

Diagram:

                                (http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTBRY6ymtazlqK3oCQ9PAccR-nKkHmjJ0g9N6E9S4v1bV-t8QaN)

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Smooth Muscle

Function:- Contracts and relaxes to widen trachea when doing exercise. Involuntary muscle.

Distribution:- Walls of trachea, bronchi and bronchioles.

Diagram:- 

                            

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Elastic Fibres

Function:- Help decrease volume in lungs by coiling back into shape after they were stretched. 

Distribution:- In the alveoli. 

Diagram:- 

                                       

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Breathing

Vital Capacity:- Maximum volume of air that can be breathed out after breathing in as deeply as possible.

 Tidal Volume:- Volume of air breathed in or out during a single breath.

Breathing rate:- Mean number of breaths per minute.

Ventilation rate:- Volume of air moved into and out of the lungs per minute.

Expiratory reserve volume:- The maximum volume of air over and above the tidal volume, that can be breathed out.

Inspiratory reserve volume:- The maximum volume of air over and above the tidal volume that can be breathed in.

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