Biology

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What are organelles?
Membrane bound parts of the cell that have their own function. They are seperate to the cytoplasm.
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What is the function and structure of the nucleus?
Control centre of a cell that transmits genetic information. Ribosomes are made here. Surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope.
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What is the function and structure of the Rough ER?
Provides a large surface area for ribosomes and is an intracellular transport system. It is a system of membranes that contain cisternae, it is also coated in ribosomes.
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What is the function and structure of the Smooth ER?
Contains enzymes that are involved in with lipid metabolism eg the sysnthesis of cholesterol or steroid hormones. It is a system of membranes that contain cisternae, there are no ribosomes on the surface.
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What is the function and structure of the golgi apparatus?
Where proteins are modified (the addition of carbohydrates), protiens are also packed into vesicles that are moved towards the plasma membrane. It is a stack of membrane bound flattened sacs with secretory vesicles,
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What is the function and structure of the Mitochondria?
Site of ATP production during aerobic respiration. Spherical, rod-shaped or branched. 2-5 micrometres long, inner membrane is highly folded, has 2 membranes.
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what is the function and structure of chloroplasts?
site for photosynthesis. Large (4-10 micrometres long), in plants cells, surrounded by a double membrane or envelope, inner membrane is stacks of flattened sacs called thylakoids, contain loops of DNA + starch grains
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What is the function and structure of a Vacuole?
Filled with water and solutes, maintains cell stability, makes cell turgid, supportive. Surrounded by a membrane (the tonoplast)
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What is the function and structure of Lysosomes?
To keep the hydrolytic enzymes seperate from the rest of th cell, can engulf old organelles and foreign matter for reuse. Small bags formed by GA, as a single membrane, abundant in cells that digest pathogens eg macrophages
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What is the function and structure of Cilia and Unduliodia?
Found in epithelial cells to beat and move band of mucus in airways, allows the cell to detect signals about its imediate environment. Spermatozoon. protrusions from a cell, contain microtubles, formed by centrioles.
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What is the function and structure of Ribosomes?
Bound to RER=synthesising proteins that are exported out of the cell cystoplasm=assembly of proteins. small and spherical, made of ribosomal RNA, amde in the nucleus
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What are the function and structure of Centrioles?
involved in the formation of Cilia and Undulipodia, present in some unicellular green algae. 2 bundles of microtubles at a right angle to eachother, cylinder shape, tubulin subunits
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What is the function and structure of a Cellulose Cell Wall?
Strong, prevents plant cell from bursting, maintain shape, permeable, allows solutions to pass through. On the outside of plasma membrane, made from bundles of cellulose fibres.
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What is the function and structure of Microtubules?
provide shape and support, help with movement in w cel]
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What is the function and structure of Microtubules?
provide shape and support, help with movement in a cell. Straight, cylindrical, made from tubulin, 18-30nm
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What is the function and structure of Microfilaments?
Support and mechanical strength, keeps shape stable, contaction+movement. Rod-like, polymers of actin, 7nm
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What is the function and structure of Intermediate Filament?
Anchor nucleus in cytoplasm, enables cell-cell signalling. Rope-like, 10nm
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What happens during protein synthesis?
1. A copy of a section of DNA (from nucleus) is made out of mRNA which is transported to the Ribosomes through nuclear pore 2. Proteins are assembled and pinched off into vesicles 3. GA packages it and secreted through vesicles for exocytosis
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What is the function and structure of a Capsule?
Protective-stops dehydrations, waxy, surrounds cell
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What is the function and structure of a cell wall?
Mechanical strength, made of bundles of fibres can be cellulose, peptidoglycan, murein
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What is the function and structure of a Nucleoid?
Holds the DNA of the cell, irregular shape, no membrane, found in cytoplasm.
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Card 2

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What is the function and structure of the nucleus?

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Control centre of a cell that transmits genetic information. Ribosomes are made here. Surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope.

Card 3

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What is the function and structure of the Rough ER?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What is the function and structure of the Smooth ER?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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What is the function and structure of the golgi apparatus?

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