Cytology and Cell Transport


3 Differences and 3 Similarities of Prokaryotes an


  • Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus with DNA contained in them
  • Eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles
  • Prokaryotic DNA is circular and eukaryotic DNA is arranged in chromosomes


  • Both cells have DNA and RNA
  • Both cells use energy
  • Both control the movement of nutrients and waste matter in and out of the cell
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Cell Organelles

  • Nucleus controls the activity of the cell as it contains the DNA, information for protein synthesis. It is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. The nucleus contains the nucleolus which manufactures: ribosome subunits, ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA
  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is the sight of protein synthesis (on the ribosomes), storage, transport and preparation for secretion 
  • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum the site of steroid and lipid synthesis
  • Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis and have 2 subunits and no membrane. Can be free or attached to RER
  • Mitochondrion is the site of aerobic respiration with a highly folded inner membrane containing enzymes for respiration. They are abundant in physically and metabolically active cells
  • Golgi body modifies cell products and encloses them in vesicles to be secreted such as insulin. Also involved in lipid modification and formation of lysosomes
  • Plasma Membrane is made of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins spanning the membrane controlling the entry and exit of soluble substance
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