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Eukaryotic cells

The Eukaryotic cell contains:

  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosomes
  • Chloroplasts
  • Plasma membrane
  • Nuclear envelope
  • Centriole
  • Nucleus
  • Nucleolus
  • Cilia
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Prokaryotic cells

Prokaryotic cells contain:

  • Capsule
  • Cell Wall
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane
  • Pili
  • Flagella
  • Ribosomes
  • Plasmids
  • A loop of DNA
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Function of organelles

Rough endoplasmic reticulum: Contains ribosomes which are the site of protein synthesis

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: Carries out synthesis of lipids

Golgi apparatus: A stack of membrane bound vesicles. Packages macromolecules for transport around the cell

Mitochondria: A double membrane bound organelle which is involved in aerobic respiration. Inner membrane forms folds called cristae to increase surface area of membrane. An the cristae, glucose is combined with oxygen to produce ATP.

Lysosomes: Contains hydrolytic enzymes which in a white blood cell, digest bacteria. Enzymes are contained in the lysosomes to prevent necrosis (cell death)


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Function of organelles: Continued

Chloroplasts: Contain chlorophyll. Have a double outer membrane. Within the stroma there are other membrane structures called grana where photosynthesis takes place

Plasma membrane: A phospholipids bilayer containing proteins. These proteins include receptors, pores and enzymes. Responsible for controlled entry of water and minerals

Nuclear envelope: A double membrane around the nucleus containing muclear pores which allow exchange between the nucleus and the cytoplasm

Centriole: A hollow cylinder about 0.4µm long formed from a ring of microtubules which are used to grow the spindle fibres used in nuclear division


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Function of organelles: Continued

Nucleus: Contains DNA responsible for the individual characteristics of each cell. DNA is similar in all cells but depending on which type of cell it is, some genes maybe turned on or off. Division of the nucleus proceeds cell division

Nucleolus: Inside the nucleus. Produces ribosomes which leave the nucleus to take positions on the rough endoplasmic reticulum

Cilia: Move in a co-ordinated manner, each slightly out of phase with its neighbour so substances around the cell are made to move.

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