- Created by: mrevv
- Created on: 19-02-20 14:55
- The chancellor did writs for William from 1069, normally before becoming a bishop.
- Robert Flambard, Odo's priest, became keeper of the great seal then a bishop regent..
- He became rich enough to buy the bishopric of Durham.
- He would have visited shires, collected taxes and overseen justice as William II's regent.
- 1070, writs in English and Latin. After, just Latin.
- English officials were phased out for Normans.
- William 2 published around 15 writs a year- Henry 41.
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- Edwin and Morcar kept thier earldoms and let Edwin marry his daughter.
- Gospatric and Waltheof ruled in the North- if a thegn had not fought at Hastings they could keep thier land. Others had to buy it back.
- England was safe enough for Mathilda to be crowned in 1068, attended by English and Normans such as Edwin, Morcar, fitz Osbern and Montgomery.
- After rebellion in the North Wiliam was reluctant to restore English nobles.
- 13/1000 tenants in chief were Enlgish in the Doomsday book.
- The 4-5k thegns had vanished.
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- Described 13k towns, villages, hamlets and 30k manors.
- Who owned the land under Edward, its value and property. Surveyed the public then checked by local shires between Christmas 1085 and August 1086.
- Speed shows the efficiency of the English land system and the Norman fear.
- No contemporaries explained why it took place.
- It could have been to reform the geld system or help post-conquest redustribution.
- It would also help administration for reallocating confiscated land or inheriting land.
- Raised when a Scandinavian army was imminant, William needed to know where and what resources and men were available.
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- Soliders were offered land- William owned the whole of England now.
- Doomsday book describes subinfeudation and the terms of letting land.
- Odo got Kent, fitz Osbern the Isle of Wight, Montgomery Shropshire.
- More loyal lords got strategic territory, like the Sussex rapes divided to 5 magnates.
- 1/3 of England was redistributed, fiefs were given and changed.
- Much land was taken illegally. Robert fitz Glbert took stole three manors.
- Churches such as Ely monestary were plundered too, even by Odo.
- William made them return property to the church- chaos from ownership probably helped cause the Doomsday book for legal judicial reasons and to stop disputes.
- Everyone had to swear loyalty to William as the ultimate source of tenure.
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- By 1086, half of all land was held by 200 Normans.
- Earl Hugh of Chester had 300 manors and £800 a year.
- Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria were divided up. East Anglia followed after the rebellion.
- The new earldoms were smaller and focussed on defending vulnerable parts of the kingdom.
- William's magnates had less power than Edward's.
- William had twice as much land as all of his men put together and a £12.6k income
- He could arrest Odo in 1082 (Unlike Godwine) who was imprisoned in Rouen.
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- Odo was William's half brother, bishop of Bayeux.
- He contributed 100 ships to the invasion and fought with a club at Hastings.
- As earl of Kent he was tenant in chief adn earned £3k a year.
- He wss hated for his ruthlesness in Kent and served as William's regent.
- 1082, he went on an unauthorised trip to Italy and was arrested.
- He was released after William's death and joined a coalition trying to make Robert of Normandy king of England. William Rufus defeated him and exiled Odo.
- Odo then went on the First Crusade with Robert but died on the way in 1097.
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The Norman aristocracy
- Continuity between the Thegns and Knights- they had horses, armour, weapons and loyalty to a lord in a very similar manner. Land could still be granted for loyalty.
- Knights had stronger bonds to thier lords than thegns and they could work in households.
- Knights were more military orineted than thegns- housecarls had been thier euqivalent.
- Edward's England was more peaceful so thegns had other duties to the community.
- Thegns received thier land for life through gifts- they could be given land for 'three lives' through a charter and 'book land'.
- Knights got land by hereditory means. Primogeniture started to be normal.
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Change and Continuity
- Replaced the members of aristocracy, not the system.
- William gained more loyalty than Cnut since he gave land, not gold.
- Knights would marry the widows of thegns to secure power.
- Much of William's laws codified existing Anglo Saxon customs.
- Language, culture and law was shared between the groups.
- The Scandinavian conquest introduced earls and housecarls- England became European.
- All sheriffs were Norman- they presided shire courts, collected tax, repaired castles, gathered armies, taxes, transported treasure, enforced writes.
- Hugh of Buckland, Norman sheriff of eight counties. Lords like Odo had their own courts.
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