- Birth Rate: number of live births per 1000 of the population per year.
- 1900 – England and Wales birth rate at 28.7
- 2007 - England and Wales birth rae at 10.7
- 1914 – 18 – 1st baby boom
- 1939 – 45 – 2nd baby boom
- 1960 – 3rd baby boom
- 1970 – Birth rate fall
- 1980 – Birth rate rise
- 1990 – Birth rate fall
- 2001 – Birth rate rise
- TFR (total fertility rate): the average number of children women will have during their fertile years.
- UK's TFR (risen since 2001) from 1.6 to 1.8. Was 2.95 in 1964.
Reasons for Changes in Birth Rate:
- Changes in the position of women e.g. right to vote, education, paid work, attitude change, divorce & contraception. Women pursuing a career
- Decline in Infant Mortality Rate: IMR (number of infants who die before 1st bday, per 1000 per year. UK 1900 - 154.
- IMR began to fall in 20th century - improved health, nutrition, hygiene, less babies born & services.
- Medical factors from about 1950s - immunisations e.g. whooping cough. 2007 - IMR: 5.
- Some sociologists disagree & say that smaller families in urban areas because of higher IMR
- Children have become an economic liability: Laws banning child labour, school leaving age - increasing length of childs dependency. Changing norms.
- Child Centredness: Childhood socially constructed. Families from quantity to quality.
- Future trends in birth rates: Immigration increasing the birth rate.
Effect of Changes in Fertility:
- The family: smaller families - more work for women, dual earning.
- Dependency ratio: Fall in children - less dependency.
- Public Services and Policies: Fewer schools & services
1900 – Death rate: 19/1000
Reasons for decline in the death rate:
- Tranter (1996) - over three-quarters of the decline in the death rate from about 1850 to 1970 was due to a fall in the number of deaths from infectious diseases e.g. scarlet fever, measles, smallpox, TB.
- Improved nutrition - reduced deaths by half especially in terms of TB. Increased risk to infection and increased survival chances.
- Medical Improvements - 1950s onwards, antibiotics, immunisation, blood transfusion, midwifery, services e.g. NHS 1949. Reduced deaths in heart disease by 1/3
- Public health & environmental improvements - in housing, drinking water, food, sewage disposal methods. Clean Air Acts reducing air pollution. 4000 premature deaths in 5 days in 1952 due to smog.
- Social Changes - less dangerous jobs, smaller families and less infection, greater public knowledge & higher incomes allowing healthier lifestyle.
Life Expectancy: how long on average a person born in a given year can expect to live. e.g. Male born in England 1900 could expect on average to live until they were 50 (57 for females). Males born in 2003-5 can expect to live for 76.9 years (81.2 for females). Increased by about 2 years per decade.
- Class, gender & regional differences. - Women generally live longer than men although gap has narrowed. Working class men 3x more likely to die before 65 compared to profession jobs. Live longer in North & Scotland.
The ageing population.
- Increased life expectancy - people living longer.
- Lower infant mortality rates.
- Declining fertility - fewer being born.
- 'Age pyramids' show age proportions in a society.
- Effects: public services stress, 'bed-blocking' in hospitals, pensioner households account for 14% of all households, a large dependency on economically active.
- A problem?
- Migration: movement of people from one place to another.
- Immigration: movement into an area or society.
- Emigration: movement out.
- Net Migration: difference between immigrating & emigrating. Expressed as net increase or decrease
- 20th century - natural increase - more births than deaths.
- 1980s - emigration higher than immigration so net decrease.
- UK has no immigration quota.
- More push factors than pull factors for people in UK.
- EU - people move and work freely. Britain joined in 2004