AQA AS Sociology Education Summary

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  • Created by: Clare
  • Created on: 20-05-13 21:36

External factors in class differences in achievement

1.                  Cultural Deprivation, Lacking of basic skills, knowledge and attitudes, through:
-intellectual development- toys- Basil Bernstein
-Language- restricted+elaborated codes- Basil Bernstein.
-Attitudes and Values- working class parents don’t value education-Sugarman

2.                  Material Deprivation, lacking of material necessities to succeed. For example:
-Housing- overcrowding, harder to study, health effects.
-Diet and health- poor nutrition, lower energy levels, more prone to illness- Howard.
-Financial support- lack of equipment, unable to go on trips, stigma attached to free school meals- Flaherty.

3.                  Cultural Capital, the knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities of the middle class.
-cultural capital- socialisation of the middle class, develop intellectual interests to help with education, puts them at an advantage- Bourdieu.
-educational and economic capital- middle class children are better equipped to meet the demands of the school curriculum- Leech and Campos- ‘selection by mortgage’.
­-Gerwitz- middle class parents are privileged school choosers, used their economic and cultural capital to get educational capital. They know how schools work + importance of meeting deadlines.

disconnected local choosers- working class parents- didn’t understand school admissions, didn’t know the choices and were restricted by travel costs so sent kids to local comprehensive.
-semi-skilled choosers- ambitious working class parents, lacked cultural capital so relied on help from others.

Internal factors in class differences in achievement

1.      Labelling- attach a meaning or definition to someone
-Becker- teachers would label pupils on what they thought was the ‘ideal pupil’, this was usually a middle class pupil.
-Rist- primary school teacher used information from a child’s home background to put them in separate groups, the working class ones were sat furthest away with fewer books and less opportunities.
-Keddie- although curriculum is the same, teachers give positively labelled pupils more abstract knowledge.
-However- Marxists- labels stem from the fact teachers work in a system that reproduces class divisions.
-Labelling theory isn’t always true, eg. Mary Fullers study

2.      Self-fulfilling prophecy- a prediction that comes true just because it was made.
-Rosenthal and Jacobson- mad a false test that identified some children that were going to do well, it came true because the teacher treated these pupils accordingly which helped them improve.
-Becker- working class pupils are put in a lower stream as they aren’t seen as ideal pupils, they feel like they have been given up upon so create a negative self-fulfilling prophecy.
-Douglas- pupils put in a lower stream aged 8 had a decline in their IQ score by 11.

3.      Pupil Subcultures, a group of pupils who share similar values and behavioural patterns.
-Colin Lacey- differentiation- teachers categorising pupils according to how they perceive their ability.
                     -polarisation- how pupils respond to streaming, moving to one extreme or the other.
-pupils placed in higher streams (usually middle class pupils) created a pro-school subculture + abided by the rules and regulations.
-pupils placed in lower steams (usually working class pupils) created an anti-school subculture, which led to a self-fulfilling



best summary of differential educational achievement in terms of: class, gender and ethnicity.


This a good resources which summarises the education topic very well, this is something that could be further used as a good revision tool for students by inserting the evaluation for all the studies identified.Good job


This a good resources which summarises the education topic very well, this is something that could be further used as a good revision tool for students by inserting the evaluation for all the studies identified.Good job


Very, very good!!! One thing though, there is nothing wrong with using the word 'sex' as long as it is used apporpiately!!! You don't need to go *** !! I know we are english and it is something that is out of our comfort zone but it is OK!!!!!!!! Otherwise very good and very helpful 

sumaiyah sumar

thanks :)

Pine Tree

One of the best resources summarizing education in terms of sociology I have witnessed thus far. Thank you very much!


Amazing source keep sharing 




Much Help Great Thanks


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