Slides in this set
What he was trying to find: whether positive or negative
reinforcement has an affect on animal behaviour.
Conclusion: through P&N reinforcement you can teach
animals how to behave.
How it can be applied to attachment: a baby will cry because
of discomfort. The sound of the baby crying is uncomfortable
to the caregiver who will attempt to comfort the child. These
behaviours are a reward for the baby who are likely to settle
after this. This acts as negative reinforcement for the parent
because they are likely to repeat this process. As the crying
has produced a reward for the baby it Is likely to be repeated.
As the cuddling/feeding is likely to turn off the unpleasant
crying the parent learns to comfort the baby to stop the
crying. Everybody is happy!…read more
Conclusion: animals can learn to behave through
Applied to humans: Food is an unconditioned stimulus that
produces an unconditioned response (pleasure).
*At the outset, mother is a neutral stimulus who produces no
*However, because she is continually paired with the
unconditioned stimulus (food) she slowly becomes
associated with it until eventually mother alone can produce
*Mother has now become a conditioned stimulus and the
pleasure she brings is a conditioned response.
(think of conditioned as learned whereas unconditioned is
something that was there all the time).…read more
Social learning theory (SLT)-
This is similar in some respects to learning theory, in that both
emphasise the role of reinforcement. However, SLT
emphasises the role of imitation. We watch others and if they
are rewarded for their behaviour we are likely to copy it
ourselves. Albert Bandura suggested that people learn from
each other via observation, imitation and modelling.
Modelling: children copy the affectionate behaviour that they
see between their parents.
Direct instruction: parents teach their children to be affectionate.
Social facilitation: parents watch their children and encourage
Evaluation- criticisms and positives-Durkin (1995) does not
believe that SLT can explain the intensity of emotion that the
On the plus side, the theory can be said to be influential in that it
has stimulated a lot of research into the interactions that take
place between parents and their children.…read more