China's One Child Policy: Rules and Sanctions
In the 1970s China's government realised it was heading for a famine due to a baby boom and so in 1979 the government began an anti-natalist policy.
- Couples can't marry until their late 20s
- only 1 successful pregnancy is allowed and after this the couple must either be sterilised or abort any future pregnancies.
- 5-10% salary rise for having only one child.
- Priority housing, pension and free education for the only child.
- In rural areas, a second child was allowed if the first was a girl because boys were needed for farming labour.
Sanctions for having a second child:
- 10% salary cut and pay cuts for the couples co workers.
- Fine imposed, the cost of education for both children and healthcare for the whole family often bankrupted the household.
- Children abroad weren't penalised but weren't granted chinese citizenship.
China's One Child Policy: Problems and Benefits
- Women were forced to have abortions up to 9 months of pregnancy.
- The government had control over peoples private lives.
- Girls were often either killed or put into orphanages in the hope that the second child would be male as these were prefered in chinese culture.
- the only child often became very over indulged as parents had all their wages to spend on one child.
- Because the population growth was slowed, enough food and jobs were made to avoid the predicted famine and poverty.
- An increase in technology and the industries that were created meant that a better living standard was created.
Between 1990 and 2000 the policy was altered: If the couple were only children then they could have 2 children. The increase in wealth meant more people could afford to pay the second child fine. Due the death of girl babies, there are now less boys than girls in China.
The Population Policy in Kerala, India
Kerala's policy began in 1952 and now the city is at stage 4 in the demographic transition model. To slow the rate of population growth in Kerala the government:
- Education was improved.
- Girls were treat more equally to boys.
- Adult literacy classes in towns and villages were created.
- Education about the benefits of a smaller family.
- Reducing infant mortality and so reducing the need for more pregnancies.
- Through vaccination programmes child health improved.
- Free contraception and advice.
- Maternity leave only permitted for the first two children.
- Earlier for those with smaller families.
- A land reform programme meant that land was redistributed so that everyone had land meaning that larger families became a disadvantage and more people were self sufficient.
France's Pro-natalist Policy
France has a pro natalist policy which encourages people to have children to improve the age structure in France and to improve the dependency ratio in the country.
To do this couples were given the following incentives to make having children an advantage:
- 3 years of paid leave for both of the parents.
- The more children a mother had, the younger she can retire with full pension.
- The government fund school from 3 years old.
- Below three years old, the government pay for daycare for children.