Saw a decline in 1950s in tuna fishing so used to hotels on the beach front of Levante to accomodate for tourists
In 1967 an airport was made in Alicante which brought in upto 12 million visitors a year by 1977 even though the population was only 60,000
Benidorm was the model that all early mass tourism holiday resorts were based upon and is still popular today. There are 20,000 apartments and 35,000 hotel beds to accomadate tourists.
Despite the recent downturn of numbers, Benidorm still has around 4 million visitors are year- tourists spend around £500,000 an hour accounting for 1 per cent of Spain's national income
15 years ago polar tourism wasn't popular at all, however in 2007 almost 40,000 people visited Antarctica. The more accessible Arctic Circle, meanwhile, attracts over a million visitors every year,
One of the downsides is that it costs a lot of money- up to £7000! but for those who are interested in getting close to nature and unspoiled wilderness the costs seem worthwhile. Whale-watching, ice-sheet treks, polar bear viewing and dog-sled racing are just a few of the activities that make the most of the natural environment. Also, in Iceland you can experience an active volcanic landscape and, in Sweden, guests can view the Northern Lights from a hotel built entirely from ice.
Cultural tourism is also popular- local inhabitants are used as a resource in addition to the natural landscape. Tourists can visit traditional Inuit villages and learn about local people's traditions.
In 1975- Fewer than 50,000 people visited
by 2008- more than 2.5 million people visited a year- half of these from UK, Germany, Greece and Russia. The tourists contributed £1.4billion to the economy of the country in 2007, bringing employment for locals.
Ayia Napa- party destination.
Local people have been horrified by the bad behaivour of tourists and many have moved away from the noisy coastal area and moved to villages inland.
Across the island massive building projects have changed the environment and put pressure on services (eg. electric and water supplies), They have destroyed beach turtle breeding grounds in some areas leading to a decline in numbers of this species.
Belize- Central America
Has become a major long-haul destination because of natural rainforest and coral reef which attract nature lovers and divers.
Tourism now makes up for 30% of the countries GNI which has been put towards improving health and education development, improving literacy rates and life expectancy which will improve social issues in the future.
GNI and HDI- Are they reliable?
GNI- Gross National Income- all the economic activity of a country is added together and divided by the total population.
HDI- Human development indicator which combines social and economic factors- life expectancy, educational attainment and GNI.
(HOW TO REMEMBER- L.E.G)
Although the country has a high GNI due to natural abundant resources like diamonds, the HDI is low as there are the highest rates of HIV/AIDs in the world.
In contrast, Costa Rica has a low GNI however has better health and education so a high HDI.
Equatorial Guinea (West Africa)- Relatively high GNI but the money is only in the hands of a few wealthy people. The majority of the population are in poverty.
Las Vegas received over 39 million visitors in 2007 and 84% of them spent at least 3 hours a day in the casinos. Although this brings in a high income, it is causing issues for locals. Across Las Vegas' home state of Nevada, 6% of adults have a gambling addiction and 10% of young people are in danger of following their footsteps.
It is estimated that Las Vegas consumes 870litres of water per person per day and environmentalists are warning that a water shortage could occur within the next 50 years which could furthermore lead to drought. This is because of all of the amusements and countless amounts of water based features which use up masses of water.
There are some locals in the country who are highly trained as good profession such as doctors however opt to work in the tourism sector. Jobs in tourism is one of the few ways of getting money to buy luxury goods in the state owned shops. This is taking their much needed skills away from the local population.
Decline of tourism industry-
From the 1930s Kenya was one of the first African countries to develop a tourist industry, attracting big game hunters and developing safari holidays.
In 1963 the country gained independence and the government recognised tourism as being a good source of income. National Parks were set up to protect the countries wildlife and there was investment in beach resorts such as Mombasa.
However since 2000, Kenya's tourist industry has declined.
Terrorist attacks in the capital Nairobi led to other governments advising citizens not to travel there and people started to go to Tanzania and other destinations instead.
In 2007 there was a dispute in presidential elections leading to 1000 deaths by rioting and violence. Tourists stayed away- 36% fall in numbers in 2008 meant the country lost £500million.
Mombasa- Hotel workers are on poor pay and have to work in bad conditions. Money from all-inclusive holidays stays in the country of origin so Kenya doesn't receive much income.
Because of free food and facilities in the resort, tourists don't tend to buy things out of the resort.
Although some workers haven't been paid for a year, they are discouraged to join Unions as this could be a sackable offence which doesn't give them basic human rights. Many workers live in abject poverty as the wages are so poor.
Inland rural villages near Mombasa-
There were local water shortages caused by building of gold course and hotel complex meaning that the locals had to walk hours to collect water from a different place. Eventually, the CEO promised to repair the water pump to the village to deliver permanent supply.
Almost 40% of the workforce relies on tourism however after the Tsunami in December, 2004, visitor numbers dropped by 70%. As the industry supplies 75% of the GNI, this had obvious negative effects.
Due to being low land, the islands are at risk due to rising sea levels. Also Ocean acidification which is destroying sea life that tourists flak to see.
In 2007 tourist arrivals decreased by 7% due to an international boycott regarding the whaling industry.
Machu Picchu, Peru
Archaeological sites were built in 1430, abandoned 100 years later
Rediscovered in 1911, the ruins have became a major tourist attraction and were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983
A long road leads upto Machu Picchu from Aguas Calientes bringing in 1000s of visitors, over 500,000 a year.
Tourist complex has been built with hotel restaurants shops and a plan for a cable car however there have been problems. Over development in Aguas Calientes has led to landslides destroying natural forests. Also rubbish is left around and waste and sewage is dumped in the nearby Urubamba River- a major source of water for people downstream.
The Inca Trail- many eco-tourists follow the 4 day trail to reach Machu Picchu 30 mile footpath. To ensure sustainable tourism, 500 people a day are permitted, pack animals are banned and the porters who are hired are only allowed to carry 25kg by law.
Yosemite National Park- USA
3million visitors per year, almost all arriving by car.
Buildings and widening roads mean less space for wildlife
Air pollution from air exhausts is resulting in smog which is so thick that Yosemite Valley is hidden from sight which has impacts on plants and animals. Noise pollution form both vehicles and humans is also a serious worry as it scares animals away and detracts from the pristine nature of the park.
5,200 residents were forced out of the Ancient City of Pagan in the lead up to 'Visit Myanmar Year' in 1996. This split up indigenous communities
Yasuni National Park- Lodges have been created from surrounding wood which means that it is more sustainable- wood doesn't have to be imported from several miles which reduces use of oil and there are no leakages of income.