AQA GCSE Geography A Case Studies - Restless Earth

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INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI 2004 EFFECTS

Primary Effects

  • >200,000 dead
  • 650,000 injured
  • 2 million homeless
  • In Sumatra, 80,000 homes destroyed
  • 25m high waves

Secondary Effects

  • Cholera spread in camps
    • killed 150,000
  • Incomes lost due to destruction of fishing boats
  • Incomes lost due to damage to ocean floor
  • Less tourism
  • Documents lost to the sea
    • resulting in land disputes
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INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI 2004 RESPONSES (IMMEDIATE)

Immediate Responses

  • International aid
    • water tablets
    • food
    • shelter
  • UK Government gave £75million
  • UK public gave £100million 
    • donations totalled £375m one year later
  • Disaster Emergancy Committee (DEC) gave £128million
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INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI 2004 RESPONSES (SECONDARY)

Secondary Responses

  • DEC spent £40million on building projects in Sri Lanka
  • DEC built 20,000 homes for 100,000 homeless people
  • Indian Ocean Warning System
    • 2006
    • teached people how to respond
    • buoys measuring water displacement connected to inland alarms
  • Green Project in Aceh, Indonesia
    • restoring mangroves = natural beach protection
    • restoring fishing industries
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MOUNT ST.HELENS ERUPTION 1980 KEY FACTS

Cause

 Juan de Fuca plate subducting under North American plate = lava

Key Facts

Caused a 5.1 Richtor scale earthquake
18th May 1980

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MOUNT ST.HELENS ERUPTION 1980 EFFECTS

Immediate Effects

  • Wiped out everything 27km north of the crater
  • 57 killed
  • 50 year old cedars uprooted
  • 250 homes destoryed
  • Lahars

Secondary Effects

  • 12% crops destroyed
    • hunger
  • Roads blocked
  • $1.4million put into tourism
    • area more well-known
  • Refertilisation of soil
    • more biodiversity
  • Homelessness
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MOUNT ST.HELENS ERUPTION 1980 RESPONSES

Immediate Responses

  • Search and rescue
  • Cleaning roads of ash
  • 2 million face masks distirbuted
  • Rations, water and medicine supplied

Secondary Responses

  • 10million trees replanted
  • Monitered by the US Geological Study
  • Bridges rebuilt with wider structures to prevent them being washed away by future lahars
  • Warning plans put in place
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THE ANDES - FOLD MOUNTAINS (MINING)

Mining

Why is it good?

  • Yanacocha gold mine is the biggest in the world
  • Ranked in the top 10 countries for tin, nickel, silver and gold

Problems?

  • Increased crime rate because of increased population
  • Cyanide used to extract gold can contaminate water

Solutions?

  • Create jobs elsewhere
  • Use a different method of gold extraction
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THE ANDES - FOLD MOUNTAINS (HYDROELECTRIC POWER)

Hydroelectric Power

Why is it good?

  • Steep slopes
  • Melting snow provides water supply

Problems?

  • Varying water supply = varying power supply

Solutions?

  • Find alternative power sources
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THE ANDES - FOLD MOUNTAINS (FARMING)

Farming

Why is it good?

  • Crops limit the downward movement of soil
  • Creates a food supply

Problems?

  • High altitudes limit the types of crops that can be grown
  • Steep slopes limit the types of crops that can be grown

Solutions?

  • Grown crops in lower valleys
  • Terraces create flat land and help water retention
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THE ANDES - FOLD MOUNTAINS (TOURISM)

Tourism

Why is it good?

  • Area of outstanding natural beauty
    • Peaks
    • Glaciers
    • Lakes
    • Volcanoes

Problems?

  • Air, noise and visual pollution

Solutions?

  • Create attractions elsewhere
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