AQA Chemistry 1 C1.1

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 05-06-13 18:30


  • All substances are made out of atoms and a substance made out of one type of atom is an element.
  • Atoms have a central nucleus, made up of neutrons and protons, and electrons surround the nucleus.
  • A Proton has a charge of +1, a neutron has a charge of 0 (neutral) and electrons have a charge of -1.
  • There is an equal number of protons to electrons in an atom so an atom has a charge of 0.
  • Each element has atoms with the same number of protons. Atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons.
  • Electrons in an atom are organised into energy levels or shells. They fill the inner shells first and then move further out.
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Periodic Table

  • There are around 100 elements in the periodic table.
  • The elements are organised into groups based on the number of electrons on their outer shells.
  • Elements in each of the groups have similar chemical properties.
  • There are 8 groups going from 0 to 7 electrons on their outer shell.
  • The elements in group 0 are known as the noble gases.
  • Noble gases are nonreactive because they have stable arrangements of electrons.
  • Each element in the periodic table is shown by it's chemical symbol such as oxygen which is O.
  • It also shows the Proton Number ( number of protons) and Atomic Mass (sum of the protons and neutrons)
  • The number of protons will be the same as the number of electrons.
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Chemical Reactions

  • Atoms join with other atoms to form compounds when they react.
  • They may give, take or share electrons to form ions or molecules.
  • When metals and non-metals react, it is ionic bonding so they give and take electrons.
  • Metals lose electrons to form positive ions.
  • Non-metals gain electrons to form negative ions
  • When non-metals react, it is covalent bonding so they share electrons.
  • Recation can be shown by word and symbol equations.
  • Atoms cannot be lost or made during reactions so the mass of all the products is the same as the mass of the reactants (outcome)
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