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C3 Chemistry
End of 20th century ­ protons electrons found
Elements arranged by atomic numbers (little) in groups
Similar chemical properties cause atoms have same number of electrons in outer shell
Reactivity of element depends on total number of electrons
Atoms get larger > electrons in outer shell less strongly…

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Good conductors
React barely with water/oxygen (air)
Form positive ions with various charges
Different charges on ions arise: small number of electrons in outer shell and an incomplete inner shell
Lower energy level can hold up to ten more electrons for elements beyond calcium
Compounds often brightly coloured
Many transition…

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Titration Calculations
Used to find the volumes of solutions that react exactly:
o If the conce of one solution is known, the volumes that react together are known, the conce of the
other solution can be calculated
o This info can be used to find the amount of a substance…

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Strontium > Stop
Calcium > teeth
Barium > bean (pea, green)
Sodium > Sun
LCCSSBP

HEATING ZINC COPPER (2) CARBONATE
Heat in ignition tube , see if limewater turns due to carbon
ZINC ­ White Yellow
COPPER ­ Turquoise Black

ANIONS
CHLORIDE BROMIDE IODIDE test with Ag+ (silver nitrate solution)…

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o Good for bones/teeth due to calcium
DISADV:
o Produces limescale
o Blocks pipes
o Makes heating less efficient
o Waste soap or buy softeners
PREVENT:
o CALGON ­ binds to calcium, can't interact with soap
o WASHING SODA (sodium carbonate) ­ precipitates out the calcium as CaCO3
o DISTILLATION…

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