Anthropology notes

  • Created by: callen7
  • Created on: 17-10-20 09:07

Fresh Fruit and Broken Bones

  • TITLE: Fresh Fruit and Broken Bones
  • ETHNOGRAPHER: Seth Holmes
  • DATE: 2002-2003
  • WHERE: Mexico
  • WHO: Mexican migrant workers 
  • the tense relationships/conflict between the migrants and border patrol
  • the violence = border patrol/cayotes/the heat and danger in the Arizona desert
  • the difference in treatment between Holmes and the workers (medicine = they are told to wait and often given second-rate services whereas he is seen to immediately)
  • NAFTA: these increased tarrfis and GM crops mean that local crops are undersold by big US companies so they have to cross the border to work and support families 
  • Embodied Anthropology: good as he could use his body to collect data and actually experience what happened but he is treated very differently due to his nationality and social standing (they think that he is a trafficker and it is difficult to build up trust
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Every Good Marriage Begins with Tears

  • TITLE: Every good marriage begins with tears
  • ETHNOGRAPHER: Chambers and Hussain
  • DATE: 2007
  • WHERE: UK and Bengal region in South Asia 
  • WHO: Those affected by arranged marriages 
  • Culture:
  • Belief and Knowledge
  • religion/cultural practice with status and property vs. more contemporary western views CLASH
  • Power:
  • Passively accepting her fate but has her OWN SENSE OF AGENCY 
  • resistance
  • Identity:
  • Begali vs. British  
  • Disowned by father as she rejects her heritage  
  • Expresses her own identity
  • Clashes with her traditional heritage
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Without Fathers or Husbands

  • TITLE: Without fathers or husbands 
  • DATE: 1995
  • WHERE: Mosuo, China  
  • WHO: The matrilineal society there 
  • Matrilineal:
  • They all belong to their mother’s lineage & A woman lives in her mother’s home and has a baby with a man from another lineage (who is also living with his mother)
  • Woman has baby/The child stays with the mother and grows up in their mother’s house
  • Work, eat and sleep together & Strict rules on male/female relations- they can’t make jokes to each other, watch TV at the same time or talk about romantic affairs
  • If lineage has no descendants, they adopt and if an open relationship splits, it’s not a problem
  • Secret/open visits:
  • Secret visit: the man pays the woman a visit without her uncle’s knowledge 
  • The girl takes an item from the boy and he has to get it= conflict between the two boys if there are 2 (Cultural revolution where they tried to put marriage in place)
  • Open visit: woman informs female head of household and man spends the night. He brings gifts and makes an offering = Open visits after 25/ the man and wife live separately/Partners aren’t considered a unit
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Being human does not make you a person


  • TITLE: Being human does not make you a person
  • DATE: 1999
  • WHERE: Malawi, East Africa 
  • WHO: The malawian society there
  • Humans and animals are different but share attributes 
  • Humans and animals as kin
  • Children who die aren’t proper ancestral spirits
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Neither Man nor Woman

  • TITLE: Neither man nor woman 
  • DATE: 1999
  • WHERE: India
  • WHO: The Hijra community
  • represent how there isn't a binary between male and female
  • mixture of fear and awe in terms of their reception
  • perform at marriages and where a male child has been born
  • They make it clear that they don’t have female reproductive organs so can’t have children to be considered ‘real’ women
  • ritual: preperation/isolation/operation/limited diet/ritual
  • long heair and dress in female clothing
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Disappearing World: Part 1

  • TITLE: Disappearing World
  • DATE: 1987
  • WHERE: Brazil, Kapot
  • WHO: Kayapo tribe
  • strong sense of family and kinship = rituals for the unborn child like the hunt and creation of a feast woth lots of dancing
  • lip plates/crystals = age and wisdom, 
  • idea of beauty and having a 'beautiful' name
  • hair = long hair indicates higher place in heirachy 
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Disappearing World: Part 2

  • TITLE: Disappearing World
  • DATE: 1987
  • WHERE: Amazon, Brazil
  • WHO: Gorotire Tribe
  • Gold mine: control this which gives them wealth and power 
  • the children often leave for education and to get jobs in the city where they pick up more urban trends (hair, clothes, slang) which leads to the lessening of tradition
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The Social Skin

  • TITLE: The Social Skin
  • DATE: 1980
  • WHERE: Brazil
  • WHO: Kayapo
  • Paint: styles and colours represent different patterns and energies = social status 
  • Penis sheath and lip plugs/feathers and customers = heirachy
  • They have a strict heirachial structure
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Pretty Modern

  • TITLE: Pretty Modern
  • ETHNOGRAPHER: Alexander Edmonds
  • DATE: 2010
  • WHERE: Brazil
  • WHO: Those who use plastic surgery in Brazillian society
  • Plastica enables women to move up the social structure and gain more power/influence
  • "a surgeon is a psychologist with a scalpel"
  • medicalisation of the body combined with the brazillian ideals of beauty
  • Plastica was for the elite but is now for the poorer too- americanisation and commodification of the female body
  • popularisation of culture and correction of specfific characteristics 
  • gives a sense of hope and upcoming wealth
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  • TITLE: Unhitched
  • ETHNOGRAPHER: Judith Stacey 
  • DATE: 2003
  • WHO: those using ART to form families
  • Gay men who choose to become primary parents challenge conventional ideals of masculinity and parenthood, dominant sexual norms of gay culture too
  • Eddie and Charles: gestational surgery, they wanted children so used a surrogate and now have 3 boys- the egg donor/surrogate are part of their extended family now (family dinners and christmas)
  • They used ART to have children when it was not biologically possible = belonging, tech and change
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Acting Brazilian in Japan

  • TITLE: Acting Brazillian in Japan 
  • ETHNOGRAPHER: Takeyuki Tsuda
  • DATE: 2002
  • WHERE: Japan and Brazil
  • WHO: Migrants to both countries
  • IN JAPAN: brazillian migrants are excluded as they lack cultural capital required but this strengthens their identity and they are perhaps more exaggerated in their dress and accents (they have the carnivals every year)= resistance against conformation
  • identity politics of resistance against Japanese ethnic hegemony and power.
  • resistance used here refers to behavior that demonstrates a refusal or unwillingness to assimilate to the culture of the majority group.
  • IN BRAZIL: japanese migrants are respected as they are seen to exceed the cultural capital
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Professional Girlfriends

  • TITLE: Professional Girlfriends
  • ETHNOGRAPHER: Hoefinger
  • DATE: 2011
  • WHERE: Cambodia
  • WHO: 'bar girls' within the Cambodian social scene
  • Power: western culture has more power, power based on communtites
  • Bar = third space/ 'bar girl' - merging identity/ more 'modern'= experimenting within the space
  • Commodified bodies → exchange for material benefits 
  • Embodiment → attitudes and hybridisation of culture
  • Globalisation → hybrids and transnationnal ‘glocalisation’
  • kinship is strong
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In Search of Respect

  • TITLE: In Search of Respect 
  • ETHNOGRAPHER: Phillipe Bourgois
  • DATE: 1990-2002
  • WHERE: East Harlem/ New York
  • WHO: drug-dealing community and those affected by it
  • Marginalisation = people hang up when Primo makes calls as a repair-man 
  • In white middle-class offices, people don’t have enough capital or the wrong type of capital to participate successfully
  • Unconscious self-censorship in interviews to keep a positive relationship
  • outsider in class, ethnicity and gender
  • politics of representation and seperating personal feelings
  • SCHOOL AND WORK: clashes of culture means that they often clash with these institutions
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In Search of Respect 2

  • IDENTITY: A ‘macho street culture identity’ that becomes threatened by women like Candy
  • Street culture of resistance: in the US socially marginalised populations are isolated causing explosive cultural creativity
  • CULTURE: A racist middle-class “common sense” that stops people from visiting the area
  • “Culture of terror” and an illusion of a friendly outdoor space
  • Individual accountability
  • Culture of rapidly over-consuming easily-made money in an area that fetishised material goods 
  • CHANGE: Change from cocaine to crack new and much more profitable
  • Increase in women crack addicts 
  • Increase in the use of crack and the growth of the underground economy
  • POWER: The police humiliated and searched him on a bimonthly basis
  • Small acts of resistance in offices - ie. dragging feet and petty theft. On a deeper level, the entire existence of street culture (and how Primo refuses to accept the norms) opposes them
  • Chapter 8: male lack of power (by not maintaining a nuclear household) results in them controlling and abusing women
  • SOCIAL RELATIONS: He mentions that day-to-day interactions by people trying to lead normal lives are inhibited and the influences on young people
  • Primo manipulates the crack-users to work for him in the same way Ray manipulates him
  • SYMBOLISM: Regular displays of violence symbolise continued power and aggression
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