Ancient Rome

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Caesar 54BC

REASONS: Glory. Britons helping Gaul. Reconnaissance.
ARMY: 5 Legions. 2000 Cavalry.
DEAL LANDING: No opposition.
FIRST MAJOR BATTLE: 12 miles from beach head. British hide in fortified earthworks.
PROBLEMS: Boats damaged/destroyed by storm.
CASSIVELLAUNUS: North of Thames. Supreme leader of South.SECOND MAJOR BATTLE: Crossed the Thames.
BRITISH REACTION: Trinovantes surrender + 5 other tribes. 4000 chariots for Guerilla War.
THIRD MAJOR BATTLE: Cassivellaunus sent for kings to collect troops for surprise attack. Caesar victory.
BRITISH REACTION: King of Trinovantes killed. Surrender to Caesar, sent envoys. END OF CAMPAIGN: Cassivellaunus gave hostages and agreed annual tribute. Caesar left to go back to Gaul.

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Caesar 54 Ethnography


Most civilised
Homesteads similar to those in Gaul


Belgic immiagrants
Incestuous - Wives shared between 10-12 men
Milk and meat
Shave bodies excluding head and mustache
"Do not grow corn but live on milk and meat and wear skins"

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Caesar 55BC

REASONS: Glory. Brtions helping Gaul. Reconnaissance.
KNOWLEDGE: Traders. Comius (Caesar made King of Attribates). Volusenus (Looked for landing spaces along coast).
BRITISH REACTION: Envoys to Caesar in Gaul. Hostages. Submission to Rome.
CARSAR'S REACTION: Sent Commuis to Britain as envoy.
ARMY: 80 transports. 2 Legions (4800 each). 18 transports for cavalry.
LANDING AT DEAL: Problems with tide. Opposed by Brit cavalry. Difficulties for 7th and 10th legions.
PROBLEMS: No cavalry. No corn. Fleet seriously damaged during high tide.
BRITISH REACTION: Attack 7th whilst 'foraging'. 7th retreated to camp led by Caesar (defeat presented as a victory)
COMMIUS: 30 British cavalry, victory in battle.
END OF CAMPAIGN: Peace and hostages (double) only some given. Caesar returns to Boulogne. Damaged fleet.

Truth         Unproved

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Expansion of Roman power in Britain AD43-60

AD43 Claudius/Aulus Platius


Suetonious: Of no great importance, modest.

Dio: Catevallauni V Rome & Verikos & Boudunni. 16 days Camulodonum conquered, titles from Sentate, triumphal arches, wife privileges, triumph, ovation for Plautus.

Archaeological - evidence of conquest

Triumphal arches in Rome and Boulogne.

Clausius Aureus AD46-47 made in Lyon (Triumphal arch & Britannia conquered. 11 kings submitted)

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Expansion of Roman power in Britain AD43-60

AD43-47 Aulus Plautius


Suetonius: Vespasian went West - Dobunni & Durotriges (Maiden Castle), 30 battles, IOW (Isle of White). 2 armies went North and North West.

Tacitus; Agricola: Gradually shaped into a province.


Longinus Sdapeze cavalrymen from Thrace. Gosbeck fort and Camulodonum.

Maiden Castle mass grave, a few with violent injuries.

Fosse Way forts along East side-lines.

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Expansion of Roman power in Britain AD43-60

AD47-52 Ostorius Scapula

Tacitus; Annals: Iceni rebellion at being disarmed within the Fosse Way by Ostorius (first Iceni revolt). Deceangli NE Wales tribe attacked. Caratacus handed over to Cartemandua. Silures attacked in S Wales. Brigantes revolt crushed. Camulodonum into veteran colony - defence & teach of Roman way. Londinium founded. Verulamuim into municipium on eve of Boudiccan revolt.

Stonea camp (Oppidum the fort).
Mendip Pig AD49 - expansion West and industry (silver).
Hayling Island - Togidubnus kingdom religious building wood to stone (Roman influence).
Forts West of Fosse Way (expanding).

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Expansion of Roman power in Britain AD43-60

AD52-57 Didius


Tacitus; Annals: Silures rebellion. Venutius revolt in Brigantia. Legionnary cohorts in Brigantia.
Didius merely held back the enemy.

Tacitus; Agricola: Consolidated predecesor's gains, pushed a few forts into more advanced positions.


Camulodonum AD54 - Temple of Claudius.

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Expansion of Roman power in Britain AD43-60

AD58-60 (to AD62) Suetonius Paulinus


Tacitus; Agricola: 2 years of success conquering tribes (implies Wales), attacked Mona (Anglesea) as it was feeding native resistence.


Dannicus gravestone - Cornuim AD58/60. Cavalryman on lines of Fosse Way.

Rufus Sita grave Glevim AD40-60's. Cavalrymen in fort West of Fosse Way (expansion)

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Timeline of Claudius the God

10BC - Born into imperial family, great grand nephew of Julius Caesar.
AD early years - Family reguarded him as lazy and sick. Suetonius: Mother named him a monster and fool.
AD14 - Suetonius: Death of Augustus. Retires from public life after Emperor Tiberuis snub.
AD37 - Became joint consul with Emperor Caligula , his nephew. Suetonius: Constantly ridiculed in public but Caligula.
AD41 - Suetonius: Caligula assassinated by praetorian guard and senators, Claudius found behind a curtain and proclaimed emperor, rewards Paetorian guard, stand off with senate. Many family members/friends killed along with Caligula. Result; Cas Emperor, most senators pardoned of Caligula's murder.AD41-3 - Suetonius: Claudius adopts name Caesar & Augustus to consolidate his position.
AD43 - Suetonius: Of no great importance.
AD43-54 - Suetonius: Triumph and sea battles, numourus senatorial plots against him.
AD54 - Murdered by wife.

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Basic timeline of Roman Britain

55BC - Julius Caesar goes to Brtain for 3 weeks.
54BC - 2.5 months in Britain going past the Thames
AD5 - Cunobelin "Kind of Britons" named by Augustus (Camulodonum)
AD47-50 - Turn Britain into province (inside Fosse Way). Londinium founded.
AD52 - Caratacus (Leader of Britain army) captured by Romans. Expand into Wales.
AD60-1 - Boudiccan revolt. Tacitus; 70,000 Romans murdered.
AD75-77 - Rome conquers NW Britain. Agricola conuers N.
AD79 - All of Britain conquered.
AD122 - Hadrians wall is built.
142-60 - Antonine Wall.
260-74 - Gallic Empire (Emperor Postumus)
AD410 - Britain leaves Roman Empire.

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Contacts between Britain and Rome between Ceasar (

55-54BC - Caesar - Gallic Wars; Trinovantes, Commius, Attribates.

50-27BC - Civil Wars in Rome. Britain forgotten.

20BC - Coins - Tincomarius (Son of Commius?) Attrebates - Travelled to Rome.

AD1 - Strabo, Georgraphy; Some princes submitted to Rome in Rome. Britons pay tribute and customs taxt to Rome.

Tacitus, Annals; Shipwrecked survures? returned AD16.

AD30-40 - Coins; Verica, King of Calleva - based off vine leaf = Roman influence. Cunobelin, King of the many, Camulodonum as capital.

40AD - Suetonius; Flees from Caligula (Son of Cunobelin).

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Roman views of Britain between Ceasar (55BC) & Cla

Caesar, Gallic Wars - Ethnography.
Cicero - No silver
Suetonius - No pearls as Caesar exprected/ wanted.

Civil Wars
Tacictus, Agricola; Civic wars in Rome. Britain forgotten.
AugustusStrabo, Geography; 'not worth conquering. Raise more revenue through customs than cost of stationing troops in Britain.' Similar to Gaul but barbarous and warlike. No cheese, but milk. No farming.
Horace; Britain a place to conquer "not yet vanquished" neighbour.
Dio' Augustus okabbed invasions.
Tacitus, Agricola; Tiberus precedent of no expansion of empire.

Suetonius; Caligula fake attack on Britain.

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