Additional Chemistry

ELLIE MILLICAN REVISION CARDS

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  • Created by: ellie
  • Created on: 18-12-09 13:23

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Key words: protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic number, proton number & periodic table.

The nucleus of an atom is made of PROTONS and NEUTRONS.

Protons = Positive

Neutrons= Neutral

Electrons = Negative

The atomic number of an element = the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom


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THE ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRONS

Electrons in atoms are in energy levels that can be represented by shells

Electrons in the lowest energy level are in the shell closest to the nucleus

Electrons occupy energy levels from the lowest first, the first group can only have 2 electrons then 8 in the second and 8 in the third etc.. Eg sodium = 2, 8, 1.

- All the electrons in a group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons on their highest energy level (outer shell)

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CHEMICAL BONDING

Compounds are substances in which elements are chemically combined. When elements react their atoms achieve stable arrangements of electrons

Atoms gain or lose electrons to form ions or share electrons to form covalent bonds

So..

COVALENT = SHARE.

IONIC = GIVE AND TAKE.

Remember..

Ionic bonds hold compounds made of ions together.

Other compounds are held together by covalent bonds

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IONIC BONDING

COMPOUNDS MADE OF IONS HAVE GIANT STRUCTURES THAT ARE VERY REGULAR.

STRONG FORCES OF ATTRACTION ACT THROUGHOUT THE LATTICE TO HOLD THE IONS TOGETHER

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COVALENT BONDING

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