Ionic Compounds = Metals and Non-metals, e.g carbon and oxygen - loss or gain of electrons, group 7 or 1

Covalent compounds = Non-metal and non-metal - sharing

Isotope = Atom with different amount of Neutrons to normal

Ion = Atom with different amount of electrons to normal (positively - lost an electron or negatively - gained an electron charged)

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Improves soil fertility

Soft rock - used for buildings

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)

Calcium carbonate (Limestone) -> Calcium Oxide (Quicklime)+Carbon dioxide + Water -> Calcium Hydroxide (Slaked Lime) + Water ->Calcium Hydroxide (Lime Water)+Carbon Dioxide+Water->Calcium Carbonate (Limestone)

CaCO3->CaO+CO2+H2O->Ca(OH)2+H2O->Ca(OH)2 (aq)+CO2+H2O->CaCO3


The more reactive the metal, the harder it is to thermally decompose. EXOTHERMIC reaction gives out heat when water is added.

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Ores - combined with other elements

Native - Pure substances

  • Create jobs
  • Economic growth
  • Pollution
  • Health issues

Dense and Ductile

Metallic bonding = Free electrons (Delocalized) Unbreakable

Alloys = Mixtures of metal elements. Stronger than pure metal because of uirregular structure (different sized elements)

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Reduction By Carbon:

Below Carbon in reactivity series. Removing Oxygen (Always a metal Oxide). Not very pure or effective.

Blast Furnace:

  • Limestone
  • Iron ore
  • Coke

Hot air, carbon dioxide made, reacts with coke to form carbon monoxide which reduces iron ore. 96% Pure.

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Loss (of electrons)



Gain (of electrons)

Pure metal from Anode (Positive, impure) to Cathode (negative, pure) Cu2+ + 2e- -> Cu

Leaching = Sulfuric acid to Copper sulfate then electrolysis (less electricity and waste gases)

Phytomining = Plants absorb metals from soil

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More reactive metals displace less reactive metals!!!

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Crude Oil

Larger, Higher boiling point (Stronger intermolecular forces, more energy needed to break bonds) Also more Viscous but hard to evaporate, very dark such as fuel oil. LPG has very short chains so its light and easily evaporated with a low boiling point.


VISCOSITY = runniness

AlkANES = Single bonds (CnH2n+2) SATURATED

Monkeys eat peanut butter

AlkENES = Double bonds (CnH2n) Test: Add Bromine, colourless = Double bond as bonds are broken. Brown = Single bonds (no reaction) UNSATURATED

Alchols = single hydroxide bond (OH)

Carboxylic Acids = Double bonded Oxygen and single bonded Hydroxide

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Hydrocarbons continued

Halogenalkanes/alkenes = One hydrogen replaced with another element such as Chlorine (Chlorohydrocarbon)

Catalystic cracking:

A catalyst speeds up a reaction. It is used in thermal decomposition. Hydrocarbon molecules heated into vapour and mixed with catalyst. This forms smaller chains. The chains are called polymers and single molecules are called monomers. Plastics are polymers. When Monomers join together to make polymers its called addition polymerization. The double bonds of alkenes are broken to become alkanes.

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Lung damage/respiratory diseases from pollutant particles. Particles in blood lowers oxygen carrying capacity. Acid rain is a direct result of pollutant gases. Can kill fish (water too acidic).

Global warming/greenhouse effect, adaption


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