4. Smart and Modern Materials GCSE AQA Graphics

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Smart Materials

  • Thermochromic-
    changes colour depending on termperature
    -Can be printed on different surfaces like paper, plastic, ceramics or textiles.
    -Can be used as thermometers put on foreheads to meeasure temperature-changes colour according to temperature.
  • Photochromic-
    Changes colour depending on the amount of light.
    -Commonly used for light sensitive glasses which turn into sunglasses in the sun.
  • Hydrochromic-
    Changes colour according to the amount of water available
    -Detectors in plant pots-tell you when to water the plants.
  • Electrochromic-
    reacts to electrical inputs.
    -Car rear-view mirrors darken when bright lights are detected and the glare is reduced.
  • Phosperent-
    -Absorbs light during the day then glows at night.
    -Fire exit sign, watches
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Modern Materials-1

  • Cornstarch polymers
    • replace oil-based thermoplastics, is made from potatoes, corn and maize etc, high in starch content-biodegradeable. Used for food packaging.
    • replaces polyethene film used in farms, to cover crops with clear polymer made from amize-it can be put into the soil afterwards to improve it.
    • starch polymers however don't have the hard-wearing properties of oil-based ones yet.
  • Paperfoam
    • made from a combination of starch-based polymers and simple (even recycled) paper fibres
    • scratch-resistant, moulded to make inserts for protection and to secure contents.
    • fully biodegradeable, can be coloured with vegetable dyes. Weighs less than the equivalent oil-based plastic, which saves on transport and emmissions. For CD and DVD case inserts.
  • Lyocell
    • high strength paper fibre produced from wood pulp, totally biodegradeable within 8 days if in damp conditions. Evironmentally-friendly modern material.
    • Used to make the paper for tea-bags, coffee filters and strong envelopes.
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Modern Materials-2

  • Polymorph-
    • special plastic used for modelling in technology-stays hard and white at room temperature until 60 degrees celsius, where it is moulded easily like plasticine.
    • However, it is very hard at room temp., ideal for making complex models/prototypes, and can be machined with great accuracy. Used for torches and computer games consoles.
  • PMC-
    • Precious metal clays-99.9% metal (gold or silver), 0,01% clay-it can be shaped at room temperature. It is heated carefully until the metal melts.
    • Very expensive, mainly for jewellery designers.
  • Nano technology-
    • method of changing the atomic structure of materials in order to make them better.
    • used to make materials cheaper, lighter, stronger and more precise.
    • Manipulating the atomic structure of carbon can form a diamond.
    • Changing atoms of silicon can create a computer chip.
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need Kevlar and more material that you would use in your every day life

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