3.4.a Birmingham

  • Created by: lee8444
  • Created on: 14-02-20 11:11

Players involved

Public players

  • Government
  • EU
  • specific departments and agencies within a governing body
  • Local governments
  • The main aim of public players is to create jobs, stimulate economic growth and make the environment better along with better healthcare and services provided

Private players

  • Businesses
  • TNCs
  • Self-employed
  • Their aim is generally to make profit
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Industrial revolution

  • In the early 18th century, the population was 15,000
  • Many had migrated from rural areas for jobs
  • The middle class increased in population
  • Increase in law and banking
  • First factory by Matthew Boulton in 1761 with 700 employees
  • In the 1800s there was growth in the industry in guns, jewellery, buttons, metal production, food, banks and brass
  • Cadbury set up their factory
  • Transport was developed with the opening of the railway to London in 1838
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Early 20th Century

  • Increase in engineering industries
  • 1906 - Austin car plant in Longbridge
  • Hundreds of small firms set up to supply the car plants with parts
  • 1917 - Dunlop set up creating 10,000 jobs making tyres
  • Survived the Great Depression due to the metalworking industry
  • Housing increased to facilitate the new workers
  • Tightly packed housing in between factories
  • Increase in middle class helped to increase the amount of tax being paid
  • Overwhelmingly white population
  • Employment was dominated by males
  • 60% of jobs were skilled such as precision engineers
  • Inner-city housing was low quality whilst on the edges, there was detached and semi-detached housing
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Late 20th Century - Economic

  • The 50s & 60s - unemployment was below 1%
  • 1970-1983 - earnings fell from the highest in the country to the lowest of any region
  • 1973 - oil crisis
    • Arab-Israeli war
    • Most western countries supported Israel
    • OPEC was dominated by Arab states such as Saudi Arabia who used oil supply as a weapon
    • EMbargo increased the price of oil to four times the price before
    • Shocked the global economic system
  • The 70s - British car production was decreasing as it was cheaper to build in Japan and these cars were far more reliable
  • Multiple strikes during the 70s cause TNCs to invest in other areas
  • 1982 - unemployment was at 19.4% as many jobs required oil
  • Global shift of manufacturing jobs to EDCs and LIDCs caused a mass loss of jobs
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Late 20th Century - Housing and Demographics


  • 5000 homes destroyed during WWII
  • 110,000 sub-standard homes
  • The 50s & 60s - 400 tower blocks built
  • 1945-1970 - 81,000 new dwellings were created
  • The accommodation was significantly better than before
  • Commuters increased as housing was further away from the CBD
  • The green belt was constructed to restrict the outward expansion


  • Increase in international migration to Birmingham for jobs in inner-city areas
  • Migrants from the Caribbean, South Asia and the Far East
  • Migrants were clustered into cheap housing due to low paying low skilled jobs such as taxi drivers
  • Became cosmopolitan with Synagogues, Mosques and Temples
  • Relatively young city with 38% below 24 compared to England being 31%
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Recent regeneration - government

  • Creation of the NEC attracted inward investment
  • Expansion of the airport increased the accessibility to Birmingham
  • Brings more income to Birmingham as jobs are created
  • Lots of funding raised since the late 20th Century
  • 1999 - The NDCs scheme brought broadband across the inner-city improving employment opportunities in the IT sector
  • £235 million was secured from the EU for the Social Investment Fund for 2014-2020 which is being used for improving insulation in run-down housing and building small premises for small start-up businesses
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Recent regeneration - flagship developments

  • Planning acts as a catalyst for creating socio-economic change
  • More public spaces e.g. Catenary Square
  • Refurbishment of Town Hall and Council House
  • 1991 - INternational Convention Centre was created an funded for by the EU attracting international conferences which surrounding businesses always profit from - the multiplier effect
  • Universities with a student population of 50,000 make the demographic younger and bring in many future tax-payers
  • Institutions like this also bring in lots of money as employers spend their money within the city and the universities create thousands of jobs
  • The 1960s - Bull RIng development was Europe's first major indoor shopping centre with many luxury brands and shops setting up
  • Streets were pedestrianised with the city's canals revitalised
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Recent regeneration - transport

  • New Street - The main railway station has had £700 million invested involving the national rail, private developers and retailers such as John Lewis who have created an area known as the Grand Central
  • Shops, cafes, restaurants and office have created 1,000 jobs
  • HS" has spent £20 billion connecting Birmingham to London involving everyone. Should bring economic growth to Birmingham as there should be employment growth and the 2 major cities will be only 50 minutes away from each other
  • Motorways converge around Birmingham with the M1, M5, M6, M40 and M42 (ring road)
  • The BPD guides decisions up until 2031 as they deal with new homes, jobs, services and infrastructure
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