2nd crusade events

  • Created by: mrevv
  • Created on: 21-12-19 09:13


  • Edessa fell to Zengi on Xmas Eve, 1144, and 60k crusaders went to recover it.
  • Campaigns in Lisbon simultaneously took place against Muslims.
  • Eugenius III released QP bull, and Louis VII of France proposed a crusade.
  • Bernard actually persauded people to go, and QP was reissued. 
  • The new bull outlined that going in any form would absolve you from all your sins. 
  • There was no explicit goal (Edessa), enemy (Zengi) or purpose ('defend the eastern church').
  • Bernard went on tours and persuaded Conrad III to crusade since his rival Duke Welf of Bavaria was also going, so the HRE was secure. 
  • Manuel did not want two huge armies in Constantinople, since he wanted to fight the Seljuks.
  • Manuel was irked since he did not invite the crusaders in 1147.
  • He did not provide a general like Tatikios, supplies or provisions, or loyalty.
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Diplomatic difficulties

  • The Papacy and Byzantines feared Norman Sicily's expansion and relied on Conrad to stop it.
  • The Pope and Manuel would have preferred Conrad to stay behind and fight the Normans.
  • Louis VII got on with Roger of Sicily, but he had to refuse his offer of transport ships and instead travel by land with the Germans through Hungary, who had recently defeated him.
  • The French and Germans initially co-ordinated extremely well, even though there was rivalry.
  • The King of France thought he was the ancestral lord of Outremer, clashing with Manuel.
  • Manuel ordered his army to follow the Germans and Conrad swore an oath to not act against Manuel. A greek soldier killed a German, leading to violent incidents. 
  • Louis swore an oath of homage to Manuel but they were tense concerning Sicily.
  • Neither king sought the advice of the crusader state leaders and Manuel did not want them. 
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German army

  • The German army was too large to count, which slowed them down.
  • Initially they were disciplined, but at Philipopolis the armies looted the local area.
  • 1147 September, they reached Constantinople. Manuel provided ships across the Bosporus.
  • Conrad refused to wait for the French and set off to Dorylaeum.
  • After a 10 day march, Conrad divided his army, which fell into the feint attack trap which exposed the infantry to the Turkish forces. Conrad used inappropriate tactics and stratergy.
  • After a crushing defeat at Dorylaeum, they retreated to Nicaea but they were ambushed by archers. They gave up and went to the French for help. Many also deserted.
  • Conrad was over confindent and was not able to pick up supplies as he hoped.
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French army

  • Louis held a highly staged ceremony at St Denis in 1147. 
  • The French pillaged markets, fought Byzantines and Germans, and were divided.
  • Manuel showed Louis and gave gifts for thier loyalty.
  • They passed over the Bosporus to Asia Minor in October, when they discovered the Germans' fate. Conrad fell ill and was sent back to Constantinople.
  • The French pressed on to Adalia on a 200 mile march thorugh Turkish attacks. 
  • They had victories at Ephesus and the Maeander river- Louis was foolish but brave.
  • Louis departed for Syria, leaving a fighting force but killing his followers. 
  • They had poor timing, stratergy, lacked supplies, and a strong opposition.
  • He relied upon the Templars to maintain discipline.
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  • Louis arrived at St Symeon in 1148, and he was welcomed by Prince Raymond.
  • Raymond wanted to attack Aleppo- they could also attack Ascalon or Damascus.
  • Edessa was an impossible target since it was destroyed by NAD.
  • Raymond could have eloped with his neice Queen Eleanor, so Louis was reluctant to fight in the North for Aleppo. He also lacked seige equipment and infanty and wanted to fulfil his vow.
  • Conrad chose to attack Damascus with B3, showing thier first alliance.
  • By ignoring the North, NAD could grow his support. 
  • The council of Acre was attended by barons and princes from East and West.
  • They agreed to attack Damascus- if they attacked Ascalon Melisende's supporter Amalric would gain land, which B3 did not want. Ascalon was not a threat. 
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  • 24th July 1148, Conrad, Louis and Baldwin camped by a river outside the city.
  • They tried attacking the east wall, but NAD was gathering a relief army.
  • There was no water by the east wall, and they were hungry and exhausted. 
  • They did not bring seige engines, enough rations, and a strong opposition.
  • Contemporaries blamed the barons for sabotage.
  • Jerusalem and Damascus renewed a treaty in 1149.
  • Even if they had taken it, NAD would have beseiged them again. 
  • Conrad returned, Louis stayed in Jerusalem for his 1 year vow, then returned. 
  • There were no new settlers in the East and the crusade was over. 
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