2.2 Prokaryotic cells

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Prokaryotes

- unicellular organisms 

- don't contain a nucleus

- have DNA located in the nuclear area

- smaller than eukaryotic cells

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Nucleoid (Prokaryotes)

storage of genetic material/information, the site of DNA replication. It consists of a circular chromosome of about 4000 genes

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Ribosomes (Prokaryotes)

The site of protein synthesis, the translation of RNA

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Flagellum (Prokaryotes)

These bring about movement of the bacterium in external medium, and may play a role in sexual conjugation

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Pili (Prokaryotes)

- Enable adhesion to surfaces and other bacteria 

- assisting in sexual conjugation

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Cytoplasm (Prokaryotes)

- the region where metabolic reactions occur

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Mesosome (Prokaryotes)

- Permeable boundary allows for entry and exit of nutrients and waste

- may play a role in DNA replication 

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Cell/Plasma Membrane (Prokaryotes)

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Cell/Plasma Membrane (Prokaryotes)

barrier in which all nutrients and waste products must past

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Cell wall (Prokaryotes)

Protects against mechanical and hypertonic stress, rupture caused by osmosis and possible harm from other oragnisms

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Plasmid (Prokaryotes)

Aid DNA exchange. These are DNA molecule capable of replicating 

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Replication (Prokaryotes)

in the right conditions they can divide rapidly by binary fission

usually asexual reproduction

- The DNA is first replicated, then it attaches itself to the plasma membrane

- The cell then elongates to separate the chromosomes

- The membrane then invaginates, pulling itself together in the middle

- the cell then splits into the two daughter cells

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