Darwin (1872)

Treated emotions as discrete entities (anger, fear, disgust). Darwin (1872) traced some expressions to infancy. He proposed that crying is an indication of screaming in infancy, however it is partially inhibited in adults. Proposed that facial expressions of emotion are universal, whereas gestures are culture-specific. Observed that emotions are found in many species. Species-characteristic patterns of action. Explained how emotion signals developed from movements. Darwin's emphasis on facial muscles was later used by Ekman (1972) in developing facial action codes.

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James-Lange (1884)

o  James (1890) emphasised the way in which emotions move us bodily. For example, people may shake, sweat or have an increased heart rate. James argued that the core of an emotion is the pattern of bodily responses

o   When you meet a bear, do you feel frightened and then run? Not according to James: when you meet a bear, you run, and your fear is the experience of the bodily changes involved. Carl Lange proposed similar ideas in 1885, so it became known as the James-Lange theory

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