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Triple Physics Revision Notes;
Nuclear Physics

History of the atom:

Greeks
Originally thought everything was made from earth, wind, fire and water
Democratus coined the term `atomos', meaning indestructible, and found that everything
was made from atoms

J. J. Thompson

Found small particles with negative charge…

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Atomic structure

Number of protons-Atomic number
Number of electrons- Atomic number
Number of neutrons- Mass number ­ atomic number
Number of nucleons- Mass number
Mass number- The number of nucleons (particles in the
nucleus)
Atomic number- The number of protons- this is the
number which determines…

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Nuclear Fission:

This is when a neutron is fired at a stable nucleus i.e. Uranium- 235 creating U-236, this is
unstable and splits into two daughter nuclei and some neutrons- the products are completely
random. This process also releases a large amount of energy.
This can…

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Nuclear Fission Reactors:




The fuel is contained in the nuclear fuel element/ uranium rod.
The reactor is controlled by inserting control rods into the core which stops neutrons passing
through. The graphite core slows neutrons down.
Control rods made from boron absorb excess neutrons to prevent…

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2
1 H + 31H 4
2 He + 10n





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