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What are the 6 main points to consider about the Wars of the Roses?
· Henry's personality
· Private concerns and personalities of key individuals
· Conflicting dynastic claims
· System of livery and maintenance/ bastard feudalism
· Gradual shift in power from king towards nobility
· End of Hundred Years War
How did ambitions of Margaret of Anjou contributed to outbreak of war in 1455?
· Margaret of Anjou - strong advocate for peace in France - led to Truce of Tours and significant in creating factions in
· Determined her son to inherit the throne - quarrel with York, which led to York feeling threatened and thus
significant in causing war.
How did Suffolk contribute to outbreak of war?
· Favouritism led to factional government and local disorder and injustice. (eg. Cade's Rebellion)
· Suffolk managed to manipulate the king - led to unpopular decisions and weakening of the monarch.
How did private concerns of Warwick contributed to outbreak of war in 1455?
· Warwick concerned of decreased influence during Henry's bout of insanity. - shown by fact that in 1452, they
helped king put down York's army in Dartford.
· Warwick very ambitious
· Also disputed with Somerset over Glamorgan
How did York's concerns and ambitions led to outbreak of war?
· Was heir presumptive for a period, yet did not receive the level of influence in court and kingly decisions that he
believed he deserved.
· Resentful of the king and particularly Somerset.
· His quarrel with Somerset and his actions against him in 1454 when he became Lord Protectorate, was a significant
trigger to starting Wars of the Roses.
Why could York be a threat to Henry in terms of dynastic claims?
· He had a strong royal connection and claim to the throne - descended from Edward III.
· Gave those who were unsatisfied with the current government (merchants) a figurehead to rally around.
· e.g. In Cade's Rebellion, rebels demanded that York have more power in royal council.
What should Henry have done in terms of combating the shift in power towards the nobility? Why can we still blame him?
· Should have controlled increasing power of nobles such as Nevilles and York. - Ultimately links back to patronage -
he had made the exacerbated the situation by giving away patronage excessively, making nobles (e.g. Nevilles)
stronger, while undermining his power and authority.
· Evidence suggest that during minority, kingdom was relatively stable, it was only when Henry's minority ended in
1437 that the kingdom became unstable - show how Henry was responsible.
· As he inherited the system, it was not possible for him to completely strip the power of the nobility. However,
what was possible as king was to channel the increasing power, so that it did not threaten his throne or the peace.
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What are the 3 arguments that may explain how the End of the French Wars (Hundred Years War) contributed to the
outbreak of war in 1455? Which is the weak argument?
· Defeat in France damaged the prestige of the Lancastrian regime.
· An indirect cause in the sense that it provided York with further justification for his attacks on Henry's regime, and
also stimulated his hatred of Somerset.…read more