Origins of the 1905 Revolution

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  • Origins of the 1905 Revolution
    • Workers
      • Working population was growing (Population of St Petersburg doubled 1890-1914)
      • Peasants moving to become workers, less food being produced = famine
      • Poor living/working conditions
      • Shortage of bread, bread queues in Moscow
      • Strikes, largely disorganised so easy to stop
    • National Minorities
      • Tsar trying to russify them, strikes as a result
      • Pogram attacks on Jewish, people blaming minorites for famine
      • Wanted independence
    • Peasants
      • Pressure to produce for growing population with basic tools
      • 1901-Series of crop failures
      • 1902-Peasant uprisings "on verge of revolution"
      • 1890s- Jacqueries: peasant attack on landlords
    • Reformist middle classes
      • Frustrated by lack of change, don't think Nicholas II is moving Russia forward
      • Hard for them to suggest change as no-one listens
      • Opposition groups repressed by Okrahna
    • Inherent problems with Tsarism
      • Absolute power- dependent on individual tsar
      • Nicholas II wasn't dynamic and had few effective ministers to help him
      • Okrahna meant that there was significant political repression all the time
      • Blood sunday made people question whether tsar was helpful
    • Depression and famine
      • terrible harvest caused famine and had a direct impact on workers and peasants
      • 1899- Severe economic depression leading to unemployment
      • 1902-03 mass strikes and demonstrations in cities
    • Russo-Japanese War
      • Nothing good came out of this for Russia
      • Fear and tension rose
      • War only made problems and prolonged existing ones
      • People started to loose faith in the tsar
      • Drop in moral
      • Height of the "summer of discontent"


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