Very Detailed Notes on Globalisation and Climate Change

Notes on Going Global and World at Risk, edexcel geography: unit one.

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  • Created on: 31-05-10 15:44
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Unit One ­ Global Challenges: World at Risk
Hydrometeorological Hazards:
area of low atmospheric pressure created when air rises from the surface of the earth
tropical cyclones: fuelled and formed by warm ocean water. Grow in size when remaining
over warm oceans
temperate cyclones: formed when air of different characteristics converges and rises,
drawn upwards by jet stream
period of lowerthanaverage precipitation causing water shortage
can be localised, or at worst continental.
Some places more droughtprone, depending on variability of rainfall.
Severe droughts cause dehydrations and spread of disease.
when usually dry land becomes inundated, usually occurring after long periods of rainfall
and causing banks to burst and overflow
Geophysical hazards:
caused by movements of rock within the earth's lithosphere
plates move from the heat generated from the mantle's convection currents
continental drift causing whole continents to "drift" over a long period of time
plate boundaries: destructive, constructive, collision, conservative
Landslides and Avalanches:
Landslide: large amounts of rock or soil sliding down a slope under the force of gravity
Avalanche: sudden downward movement of snow or ice in mountainous regions
Occur anywhere, without warning
Disaster Risk Equation:
Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability
Capacity to Cope
1a)(i) Which three types of hazards together kill the most people?
Drought and famine
1a)(ii) For one of your chosen hazard types, give two reasons why
Drought and Famine: Dehydration and spread of disease
1a)(iii) Which hazard type makes the most people homeless?
1a)(iv) With a reference to an example of this hazard type, suggest reasons why?
The flooding of New Orleans is completely dependant on its system on levees to prevent
flooding, however as a result of Hurricane Katrina, the flood defences were breached
leaving 60,000 homeless.
1b) Explain why overall volcanoes have the least impact

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Volcanic eruptions can be predicted therefore the warnings allow people to prepare and
therefore limit death tolls, injuries and number of homes left damaged.…read more

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Floodcontrol system on the River Thames to protect London has allowed the city to
expand to tremendous size, despite resting on flood plains.
More dependant on systems of water, power, communication and transport. When
systems collapse we cannot fend for ourselves.
Many struggle from hourlong powercuts
Climate Change:
With a changing climate, it is predicted that magnitude and frequency of
hydrometeorological hazards will change as well, for the worst.
IPCC report concludes a warming of 2degrees will increase likelihood of natural hazards.…read more

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The World Bank used the term "Hotspots" to describe the areas who were most
vulnerable to natural hazards.
with its relatively small borders the nation is exposed to earthquakes, landslides,
hailstorms, droughts, windstorms and floods. Mountainous landscape prone to
landslides ­ causing annual damage of about $10mill.
Assessing the characteristics of natural hazards:
"hotspots" are not necessarily the most likely to be hit but one where natural disaster is
likely to occur from the hazard.…read more

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Melting of snow and ice
Rising global average sea level
Changes in rainfall patterns
Changes in wind regimes
Changes in the nature of extreme weather events
Changes in the biophysical world.
Natural cycles of warming and cooling:
Evident in the earth's climatic record.
These findings of previous cooling and warming allow scientists to global warming in
Allows us to make judgements to whether global warming is part of a natural cycle or
fluctuation, or whether it's occurring because of anthropogenic influences.…read more

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It is clear that the influence of anthropogenic activities has a much greater effect on global
warming than natural cycles do.
Africa ­ economic impact on the poor:
Most vulnerable region from climate change
Changing rainfall patterns will affect existing agriculture
As rainfall declines, growing seasons decline, yield will be reduced.
Decrease so much as to 50% by 2020
Water stress increase in areas that already suffer from drought and famine
Between 75 and 250 mill.…read more

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Adaptive Capacity: manage impacts of climate change
Variations in adaptive capacity:
factors or "nonclimatic stresses" such as: Conflict, disease, food shortages, poverty,
unequal access to resources and water stress
Developing sustainability:
development must exist in parallel to systems and processes that occur in the natural
sustainable development reduces vulnerability by strengthening adaptive capacity.
Strategies to manage global warming:
Plant a tree: tree's serve as carbon sinks by removing CO2 from the atmosphere.
However anthropogenic activities have removed many of the worlds' forests.…read more

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Unit One Global Challenges: Going Global
Process in which national economies become more integrated into a single global
Actions made in one part of the world have a knockon effect somewhere else ­
parts of the world becoming linked economically
Population Distribution:
Increased population puts pressure on resources in areas of growth
World already experiencing rapid population growth: industrialisation of China ­ main
contributor to climate change from dependence on fossil fuels
Recent trend for China to rely on Africa to fulfil demand…read more

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Decreasing cost of transport and communication has affected TNC's. They have access
to headquarters via satellite, or travel to them quickly. The availability of such things has
encouraged migration due to employment opportunities.
Transnational companies now control 70% of the world's trade
Effects of globalisation of population movements:
Globalisation has led to a greater ease of movement for money, food and goods as
technology and global awareness has increased.…read more

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OECD ­ Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
The Commonwealth
An association of 53 countries, all of whom are former British Colonies except the UK
itself and Mozambique. Despite diverse, they all try and uphold the same values.
EU ­ European Union
An economic and political grouping of European countries. Currently with 27 members
who contribute to a central European Parliament, Commission, Court of Justice etc.…read more



thank you this is very helpful!

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