Global challanges case studies

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  • Created on: 11-05-16 21:34

Vulnerablility factors examples

URBANISATION: mexico city earthquake 1985 demolished slum areas

POLITICAL CHANGE: hait between governments during hurricane jeanne 2004

ECONOMIC GROWTH: texas and atlantic coast at risk of hurricane damage e.g bridges that link barrier islands

GLOBALISATION: deforestation in the phillipines- tropical storm debbie, flash floods in 2012 carabbean

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION: new orleans river controll banks werent strong enough to cope with hurricane katrins

CLIMATE CHNAGE: el nino 1989 and 1977 worl wide effects, european floods 1999-2000 and draughts 2003&6

POPULATION CHANGE: greying population USA and japan

LAND PRESSURE: 85% population live on a floodplain in bangladesh

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Local hazards

HATFIELD LANDSLIDE: 12/03/13, occured on a spoil heap, effected railways around the area and stainforth station

MARKET RISEN EARTHQUAKE: 2008, 5.2 magnitude, biggets in 25 years, strike slip fault 18.6m beneath linconshire, 19 year old boy crushed underneath a chimney, structural damage reported, powecuts

SHEFFIELD FLOODS: 2007, 1 months rainfall in a week, 2 people died, people evacuated and air lifted, loss of buisnesses, medowhall flooded, m1 closed

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California hazards

EARTHQUAKES; occur along the ‘swarm’ of faults running north-south along the coast, san andreas fault line

VOLCANOES: potentially active in the Cascades Range,

TSUNAMI: the coastline can be at risk due to deep sea eathquales

FLOODS: flash floods in canyons can also result in landslides

WILD FIRE: driven by hot Santa Ana winds

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Vulnerability in california

6% population lives on floodplain

Millions live on active faults in hudge urban centers

high canyons are perfect conditions for wildfires however rich people live there

realiable on cars making transport a big impact

large economy (8th biggest) vulnerable to economic losses

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Californias capacity to cope

  • Coping capacity is high. Efforts are co-ordinated by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) and by the Governors Office
  • The USGS advises on earthquakes and provides detailed information on areas at risk allowing emergency services to target areas where damage is likely to occur
  • Building codes are strictly enforced
  • Numerous preparedness systems are in place, from widespread education, to advice on household emergency kits, and warning systems for floods and tsunami.
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Californias case study examples

1994 NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE: happened in LA, killed 72, $12 billion losses

1964 ALASKIAN TSUNAMI: 9.2 magnitude, 119 killed, $300-400 million

2007 NAPA COUNTY WILDFIRE: 3800 acres burnt, 2 houses and 7 building destroyed including a school

HURRICANE KARTINA 2005: 1836 deaths, $81.2 billion losses

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Philippines hazards

VOLCANOES: located along the pacific ring of fire

EARTHQUAKES: 100% of the country is at risk, on a destructive plate margin, can also
induce shallow landslides on steep slopes.

TYPHOONS: Sits on a typhoon track, and experiences around 20 per year (typically 2 of these are super-typhoons)

TSUNAMI: do occur, although the scattered islands tend to reduce risk

FLOODS: 30% counrty at risk

DROUGHT: caused by El Nino events effecting poorer south.

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Vulnerability in philippines

high population density

low capaity to cope

scattered islands (7100) make it difficult to deliver aid to

lack of funding and expertise in management

basic protection along 32000km coastline

on a tropical typhoon belt and has warm ocean temperatures

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Philippines capacity to cope

Cyclones cost the country around 0.5% of its GCP every year..

The scattered islands in the peripheral south are difficult to access and bring relief too.

On the positive side, the Philippines enjoys good relationships with the USA, which has brought aid in the past

The Philippines Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) is high quality research centre

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Philippines case studies

LUZON EARTHQUAKE 1990: 7.2 magnitude, $369 cost, 2412 deaths, 126035 homeless, 321 missing

TYPHOON HIYAN: 6340 deaths, 1061, $2.26 billion losses

1991 MT PINATUBO VOLCANO : major pyroclastic eruption with associated lahars and ash/tephra fall; successful evacuation limited the death toll to around 600 although economic losses were extensive

2006 Leyte MUDSLIDE: major mudslide following several days of heavy rain, in an area of deforestation and mining activity; probably triggered by a minor earthquake. Up to 1000 killed.

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International organisation examples

IMF: 188 members, a global financial system

WORLD BANK: 188 members, international bank

WTO: 157 members, international trade

UN: 193, cooperation in international law, security, economic development, socail progress, human rights and world peace

NAFTA: 3 members (USA, canada, mexico) trade agreement

EU: 28 members: 30% wolrds GDP, trade agreement, free movement of goods and services aswell as people, common currency

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TNC case study- Disney

income $50 billion

180000 employees

Eurodisney provides 30000 jobs

worlds 11th most valuable brand

230 linked satalitte and tv companies

owns spanish speaking radio station

728 shops world wide

2 theatre production companies

broadcast tv 24/day in north africa, middle east, europe, australia, malasya

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Edvidence for short term climate change

INSTUMENTAL RECORDS: warming of the earths temperature of 0.74 C between 1900 and 2000, increase in ocean acidification ph has decreased from 8.25 to 8.14 since 1750, global sea levels are rising from 1961 to 1993 it rose 1.8 mm per year but rose to 3.1mm 1993 and 2003

ICE RESPONCE: melting of greenland icesheet has increased by 16%, artic sea ice is declinng by 8.5% per decade, 30 vslley glacies in 9 mountain ranges around the world are melting 3x faster then in the 1980s

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Edvidence for medium term climate change

HISTORICAL RECORDS: indicates both a little ice age and a medieval warm period

TREE RINGS: wide rings reflect good growing conditions, narrow rings represent periods of climate stress

RETREATING GLACIERS: majority of glaciers reached thier most ercent maximum extent in 1850 which correlates with the little ice age and the colder temperatures in the 17th and 18th centuries, most glaciers have retreated since

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Evidence for long term climate change

OXYEGEN ISOTOPE LEVELS: 200000 years ago the ice sheets were at thier maximum this means that the sea levels are much lower in glacial periods as mmore water i locked up as ice

CO2 LEVELS AND ICE CORE ANALYSIS: during cold ice ages the CO2 levels were low 180ppm wheras in warm interglacial periods CO2 levels are high arounds 280ppm

POLLEN SEQUENCES: birch trees live in cold artic condition evidence that the uk experienced an ice age

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Direct impacts of climate change

the uks annual rainfall is expected to increase by 5% in 2020s and by 10% by the 2050s

the uk could experience a 200km shift northwards

up to 40% permafrost expected to thaw in siberia

the contrast in the uks weather is expected to get worse with the SE becoming driers and the NE becoming wetter

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Indirect impacts of climate change

loss of habitats and species such as the polar bear

5.8C temerature increase suggest that 100 million people will be at risk to flooding

Food insecurity will dedline due to the higher risk of draught eg african where 75% population are subsistance farmers

melting of ice will raise the sea levels by 7m in the next 1000 years

a warming of 2-3 C would mean 300 million more people will be at risk of malaria

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Artic case sudy

-40% permafrost is expected to thaw
-boreal ecosystems account for 37% of the worlds carbon sinks which will be lost allowing more CO2 in the atmosphere
-changes in marine ecosystems causing a negative multiplier effect
-herd animal like caribu have to change migration routes
-threatens 155000 inuits
-24 villages in alaska are at risk of flooding
-increased UV will reduce the amount of snow and ice destroying phytoplankton
-increased coastal erosion
-loss of hunting culture and a decline in food security

  • the artic will be more accesable making it vulnerable to the exploitation of oil and gass
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Africa case study

-water insecurity

  • 70% counrty relay on agriculture and may not be able to feed themselves due to draught
  • loss of biodiversity
    coastal areas are vulnerable to flooding with sea levels expected to rise by 25cm for 2020
  • 20% species face extinction

forest clearance for cash crops

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-largest city in india with a population of 18.2 million
-its economic growth has slowed down
-quality of life is low and there is an increasing number of slums
-growin problems with congestion, pollution and water shortages
-at ruah hour trains tend to have 15 people per meter sqaured, 10 people die a day on railway networks, railways account for 66% journeys - construction of a 25km bringe for the villages opposire the CBD, 160 energy efficiant trains are being built
-40% population live in shanty towns with 300000 people being homeless- aim to build 1.1 million low cost homes, dharavi prodject to build 7 story appartement building to house slum dwellars
-50% of the total workforce work in the informal sector- 200000 new service sector jobs, 200000 jobs in new industrial zone
-breathing air in bombay is equivalant to smoking 10 ciggarettes a day- 325 new greenspaces are being established

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Los Angeles

TRANSPORT/ URBAN SPRAWL: noise barriers, clean air act, car pooling

AIR QUALITY: 1130 tonnes of noxios gass was being created- clean air act

WATRER: high population was putting a strain on the water supply- seal canals to reduce the loss, new reservois

SOCIAL: prositution and gang rivalry- new toucher policies that are costly but effected

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RECYCLING: recycling teams, recycles 2/3

GREEN EXCHANGE: people can swap recycling for food or bus tickets, 300 tonnes per month

INTIGRATED BUS SYSTEM: bus only lanes, 1 fair anywhere, travel time is halved, only 10% of income is spent on travell to worl, 75% workers catch the bus, buses carry up to 4000 people per day

PEDESTRIANISATION: bulit a shopping area in 72 hours that in pedestrian only to stop cars congestint the area

PARKS AND GREEN SPACES: river banks made into parks, deivert water, old factories are made into sporting facilies, 26 new parks

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