Unit H Religious Studies

Unit H

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Bible the holy book of
Christians, with 66 books split into the
Old Testament and
the New testament.
Church the community of Christians (with a
small c, it means a Christian place of worship).
Conscience an inner feeling of
the rightness or wrongness of an
Situation the idea that
Ethics Christians should
base moral
decisions on what
is the most loving
thing to do in a situation.
System the way in which voting is organised
thepost the voting system where whoever gets the most votes in a constituency (area
represented by an MP) wins the seat.
representation the voting system where seats are distributed according to the proportion of votes each
party gets.
government the government, headed by the prime minister, that governs the whole country.
government the local council, which looks after
local issues such
as education and refuse collection.
Main Facts
There are usually four factors to consider when Christians are faced with making moral decisions:
1. What the Bible says. This is important because Christians believe that God speaks through the Bible.
Also the Bible records what Jesus said about moral behaviour. Some Christians look through the Bible
for a teaching on the issue and follow that.
2. What the Church says. This is important
because Church leaders are in the best position to interpret what the Bible means for today. Also, as far
as Roman Catholics are concerned, the Pope and the bishops have special powers in interpreting the
Bible. Some Christians listen to the teaching of the Church and use it to guide their moral decision.
3. What conscience says. Conscience is the inner feeling that makes people think something is right or
wrong. This is important because many Christians think that conscience is the way God speaks to
Christians today. Some Christians obey what their conscience says when making a moral decision.
4. Situation Ethics. This is the idea that the only moral rule for Christians is to love your neighbour.
Therefore, Christians should just be guided by love in deciding what to do. Some Christians work out what
would be the most loving thing to do when faced by a moral decision.
Some Christians would use just one of these, but
many Christians use a mixture of all four, but in particular 1 and 2.
Moral Decisions
When Christians have to decide what to do, they can:
use what the Bible says about it

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Church leaders or their priest/minister say about it
use what they feel is the right thing to do (their conscience)
work out what is the most loving thing to do (situation ethics).
The United Kingdom has a national government in charge of things for the whole country, such as
Social Security.
The United Kingdom has local government in charge of things that matter for the local area, such as
emptying dustbins.
There are two ways of voting in UK elections: proportional representations and firstpastthepost.…read more

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The Welfare State
The Welfare State is the system that helps everyone to have a good quality of life by providing things like
schools, the National Health Service and Social Security.
Main Facts
The Welfare State was developed during the 1940s to remove the evil giants of want, disease, ignorance,
squalor and idleness.…read more

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The proper use of resources
Some scientists think that the problem of resources can be solved if they are recycled and/or used more
efficiently to give a longer life to the resources. Scientists are also looking for different resources, e.g.
using sugar cane instead of oil to run cars, using wind or water to make electricity.…read more

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Adam as his khalifah to look after the earth for God by following the Shari'ah, which sets out how
Muslims should care for the environment. Muslims believe that this life is a test from God and that they will
be judged on their performance in the test on the Day of Judgement, including whether they have polluted
God's world and whether they have looked after the world in the way of the Shari'ah.…read more

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Muslims believe that animals can be used for medical experiments and should be used for food. However,
they also believe that humans should not be cruel to animals and that farmers should care for their
animals humanely.
They believe this because:
God gave humans the right to control animals according to the Qur'an
God is the creator of animals as well as humans and the Qur'an says that animals have feelings and
must be dedicated to God when being slaughtered.…read more

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Nuclear weapons
Weapons based on atomic fission or fusion.
Other weapons of mass destruction
Nonnuclear weapons that can destroy large areas and/or large numbers of people, e.g. chemical
World peace
The basic aim of the United Nations to remove the causes of war.
Conflict in the world today means groups of people fighting each other. Conflict is happening in
Israel/Palestine over establishing separate Palestinian and Israeli states.…read more

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Muslims believe that this type of war is a struggle for God (jihad) because:
the Qur'an says that Muslims must fight if they are attacked
Muhammad fought in wars
there are many hadith from Muhammad saying Muslims should fight in just wars
the Qur'an says that Muslims dying in jihad will go straight to heaven.
Muslims believe in peace, but Islam teaches that if Islam is attacked, then Muslims must defend their faith
by fighting a jihad because the Qur'an teaches this.…read more

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Religion says that the best way to deal with such conflicts is forgiveness.
Conflicts can happen in families or between friends. They happen because people do not accept friends or
family members having different ideas or being more successful
Conflicts between friends and family can be like war on a small scale
Christians believe they should try to settle conflicts between families and friends. They believe they should
forgive those who attack them. Christians believe they should do this because of the teachings of Jesus.…read more

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Law rules made by Parliament and enforceable by the courts.
Justice due allocation of reward and punishment, the maintenance of that which is `right'.
Dropping the wrapper from your chocolate bar is a crime. Refusing to share your chocolate bar with a
starving person is a sin.
Main Facts
Christians believe that the world should be ruled and justly and that God will reward the good and punish
the bad.…read more


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