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Biology ­ Unit 1
1. Disease
Pathogens

These include bacteria, viruses and fungi. Whenever one of these manages
to penetrate an organism (for example by the digestive or respiratory
systems in humans), disease can be contracted.

Some pathogens damage the cells of the host, and some secrete harmful
toxins.

Lifestyle…

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Test is biuret, positive is purple

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Enzymes

Catalyst lowers activation energy by forming enzyme substrate complex

Induced Fit




Lock and Key (Wrong)




Temperature: causes breaking of bonds, changes tertiary structure, changes active site
Competitive inhibitor: Same/very similar shaped active site, fits into enzyme instead, substrate
unable to form complex
Non-competitive inhibitor: Fits into another part of…

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3. Cells
Plasma membrane: lipid bilayer
+ protein carriers + protein
channels, selectively permeable
for transport

Microvilli: +++ surface area for
transport

Nucleus: DNA + nucleolus +
pores, controls activities

Mitochondria: makes ATP, has
cristae

Lysosomes: contain enzymes for
breaking down cell
Ribosomes: made in nucleolus, protein synthesis

Endoplasmic reticulum:…

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