Biology Unit 1 Revision Notes

Just some notes that I made to revise from, maybe other people will find them useful!

**Not all topics are covered, I lost the document containing them :(**

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Biology ­ Unit 1
1. Disease
These include bacteria, viruses and fungi. Whenever one of these manages
to penetrate an organism (for example by the digestive or respiratory
systems in humans), disease can be contracted.
Some pathogens damage the cells of the host, and some secrete harmful
Risk factors: Obesity
High cholesterol diet
Alcohol/drug use
2. Enzymes and the Digestive System
Digestive System
Digestion = hydrolysis by enzymes of
large molecules into smaller ones
< Amino Acid Structure
Peptide bonds form with condensation between
adjacent molecules

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Test is biuret, positive is purple…read more

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Catalyst lowers activation energy by forming enzyme substrate complex
Induced Fit
Lock and Key (Wrong)
Temperature: causes breaking of bonds, changes tertiary structure, changes active site
Competitive inhibitor: Same/very similar shaped active site, fits into enzyme instead, substrate
unable to form complex
Non-competitive inhibitor: Fits into another part of the enzyme, causing the active site to change
shape, unable to form complex
Ph : too high or too low then wrong conc.…read more

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Plasma membrane: lipid bilayer
+ protein carriers + protein
channels, selectively permeable
for transport
Microvilli: +++ surface area for
Nucleus: DNA + nucleolus +
pores, controls activities
Mitochondria: makes ATP, has
Lysosomes: contain enzymes for
breaking down cell
Ribosomes: made in nucleolus, protein synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum: synthesis of proteins + lipids
Golgi apparatus: packages + processes proteins (looks like pitta bread)
Magnification= Image/Actual
Centrifugation: heavy (big) organelles come off at lower speeds
Lipid test: +ethanol, shake, cloudy is positive
Active transport is…read more


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