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Fundamentalism:Literalist reading of a holy book with faith being identified at the centre of a person's
Lead to the larger recognition of Islamaphobia which has intensified since 9/11.
Nonbelievers and those within the faith who have been corrupted are seen as outside of the faith.
Postmodernists' state that is…

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Shared values in the form of a 'collective conscience' are essential.

Does not allow for social change, with its conservative emphasis of social order (religion on social
Its consensual assumptions underestimate religion as a source of social conflict e.g.
Northern Ireland.

Functionalism and Parsons:
Conservative force.
Religion provides…

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Religion is the 'opiate of the masses' meaning it is drug like and makes life bearable with the suffering
caused by inequalities, exploitations and social control.
Religion helps to prevent the emergence of class consciousness and revolutionary action.

Weber Religion is not simply based on the economic base, Calvinism…

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Kautsky (a Marxist) capitalism emerged first and protestant values were used to justify it ­

Berger and Luckmann
Religion provides a set of categories and meanings which enable individuals to make sense of the
A 'universe of meaning' is socially constructed on the basis of religious beliefs…

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Compensators are alternatives to the actual rewards and are accepted as matters of faith.
Compensators meet the spiritual needs of people.
Religion is unlikely to disappear as it provides a supernatural compensating explanation.

Why do people believe that the source of desired rewards resides with deities?
Is eternal life…

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Religion in terms of church attendance has decreased making religion less powerful in this form
however modern societies create their own need for and forms of religion.
Modern cultures encourage problem solving and seeking solutions and many use religion to do this.
A gap exists between experience and expectations…

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alternative = decline in Alternative belief systems
traditional religious views. may ne fulfilling religious
functions for society.
Disenchantment Rise of scientific reasoning Individuals make use of
means that individuals have both scientific and religious
become disenchanted with reasoning in their lives.
religious explanations of Science gives medical
reality. treatment and…

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¾ of the adult population hold some form of religious beliefs but does not necessarily mean they will
attend church.

Religious believers have the fertility advantage as they have more children than nonbelievers.
This advantage highlights the importance of family and family values.

Individualisation ­ people have more…




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