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RELIGION…read more

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Fundamentalism:Literalist reading of a holy book with faith being identified at the centre of a person's
Lead to the larger recognition of Islamaphobia which has intensified since 9/11.
Nonbelievers and those within the faith who have been corrupted are seen as outside of the faith.
Postmodernists' state that is may offer certainty in times of uncertainty in the forever
changing modern world as they often emerge during times of social change.
Armstrong responded to fundamentalism in modernity.…read more

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Shared values in the form of a 'collective conscience' are essential.
Does not allow for social change, with its conservative emphasis of social order (religion on social
Its consensual assumptions underestimate religion as a source of social conflict e.g.
Northern Ireland.
Functionalism and Parsons:
Conservative force.
Religion provides guidelines for action and standards against which people's conduct can be
I.e.…read more

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Religion is the 'opiate of the masses' meaning it is drug like and makes life bearable with the suffering
caused by inequalities, exploitations and social control.
Religion helps to prevent the emergence of class consciousness and revolutionary action.
Weber Religion is not simply based on the economic base, Calvinism assisted the rise of
capitalism. So if anything, the relationship is the other way round.…read more

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Kautsky (a Marxist) capitalism emerged first and protestant values were used to justify it ­
Berger and Luckmann
Religion provides a set of categories and meanings which enable individuals to make sense of the
A 'universe of meaning' is socially constructed on the basis of religious beliefs and ethical codes
enables order and stability for individuals.…read more

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Compensators are alternatives to the actual rewards and are accepted as matters of faith.
Compensators meet the spiritual needs of people.
Religion is unlikely to disappear as it provides a supernatural compensating explanation.…read more

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Religion in terms of church attendance has decreased making religion less powerful in this form
however modern societies create their own need for and forms of religion.
Modern cultures encourage problem solving and seeking solutions and many use religion to do this.
A gap exists between experience and expectations and this gives the need for religion.
Secularisation isn't the disappearance of religion but an ongoing process of the reorganisation of
religion in a way which is compatible with modern living.…read more

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Alternative belief systems
traditional religious views. may ne fulfilling religious
functions for society.
Disenchantment Rise of scientific reasoning Individuals make use of
means that individuals have both scientific and religious
become disenchanted with reasoning in their lives.
religious explanations of Science gives medical
reality. treatment and religion gives
Loss of faith in religion. spiritual treatment.
Internal Secularisation Some religious Churches make themselves
organisations have become relevant and change their
`this worldly' in suggesting message with
a move away from their secularisation.…read more

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Religious believers have the fertility advantage as they have more children than nonbelievers.
This advantage highlights the importance of family and family values.
Individualisation ­ people have more choice as to what they follow and chose a `God of one's own.'
Secularisation has in fact made a reinterest in religion and has paved the way for a revitalisation of
Religion is more fluid and flexible and able to compete in the marketplace of modernity.…read more



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