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Psychodynamic:
Researcher/ Freud ­ Little Hans (1909)
s
Date
Aim Freud studies the case of Little Hans to try to understand the five year old
boys' phobia of horses and to treat it.
Method Case Study
i.e. Lab
Experiment
Procedure Themes:
1. Little Hans had an interest in his widdler (penis). He dreamt about widdlers
and wiping children's bottoms. Hans denied an interest and said it was
only in his dreams. When younger Hans played with his widdler his mum
told him off for it.…read more

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When Hans said the mother doll is his mummy and that he was the father
and his own father the grandfather, this showed Hans was now cured, this
was the resolution of the Oedipus complex.
Evaluation The data was comprehensive. Covering dreams, events, ideas and feelings
= valid.
Although the information was not gathered from Hans directly, there were
attempts made to analyse information that Hans himself had spoken freely
of (even though to his father) so to that extent the data was = valid.…read more

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Researcher/s Dibs: Personality development in play therapy.
Axline (1964)
Aim To cure a five year old boy of his refusal to speak or interact with others
and his aggressive nature when challenged by unlocking what was
troubling him.
Method Case Study
i.e. Lab Experiment
Procedure Play therapy sessions documented.
Dibs' teachers thought they were failing him, they asked Axline to help. At this
stage no one really knew the story behind Dibs silence.…read more

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Biological:
Researcher/s Dr Money (1975) Ablatio Penis: Normal male infant sex
Date reassigned as a girl.
Aim John Money. John Hopkins University. Believed gender is determined
by social experience after birth, a product of upbringing. He believed
children were born gender neutral and are created as males or females
through the way they were brought up. He tested his theory in the case
of Bruce/ Brenda.
Method Case Study
i.e. Lab Experiment
Procedure In 1965 identical twins Bruce and Brian were born.…read more

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David shot and killed himself. It has been argued that the strong, natural force he
felt telling him that he was male, being then overridden by the upbringing he
received, was a significant factor in the depression leading to his suicide.
Evaluation
The case study only followed one child and the results may not be
Generalizability
applicable to all other children.…read more

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Conclusion While Money wanted to prove that biological gender can be easily
overwritten by upbringing of a child.
Researcher/s Raine et al (1997)
Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission
Date tomography
Aim The aim of the experiment was to discover if murderers who have
pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) show evidence of
brain abnormalities.
Method Natural Experiment?
i.e.…read more

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Results The results from the subcortical areas found less activity in the corpus
callosum They also found an imbalance of activity between the two
hemispheres in three other subcortical structures. In the amygdala and
the hippocampus, compared to the controls, the NGRIs had less activity
in the left side and more activity in the right side. Also, in the thalamus
the NGRIs had more activity in the right side, though no difference in the
left side.
Raine et al.…read more

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If we know that murder may be caused
by faults in peoples' biological make-up, then it means that we
can work on ways to treat violent offenders by altering their
biology. There have been some people who have suggested
treating criminals by trying to change or alter their brain
chemistry. ­ application
However the study does have methodological weaknesses. For
example PET scans are still being developed and therefore
the data should be treated with caution.…read more

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Researcher/s Gottesman and Shields (1966)
Date
Aim To investigate the relationship between schizophrenia and
genetic makeup.
Method Analysis. Lab testing.
i.e. Lab Experiment
Procedure Researchers looked at patient records from a short-stay psychiatric hospital with a
large outpatients department.
The records covered a sixteen year history from 1948 to 1964.…read more

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