Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
AS Biology Unit 1 page 1




AQA AS Biology Unit 1
Contents
Specification 2
Biological Molecules Chemical bonds 4
Carbohydrates 6
Lipids 8
Proteins 10
Biochemical Tests 16
Enzymes 17
Cells Eukaryotic Cells 24
Prokaryotic Cells 28
Cell Fractionation 30
Microscopy 31
The Cell Membrane 35
Movement across Cell Membranes…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
AS Biology Unit 1 page 2




Biology Unit 1 Specification
Biochemistry The structure of prokaryotic cells to include cell wall,
Biological Molecules plasma membrane, capsule, circular DNA, flagella and
Biological molecules such as carbohydrates and plasmid.
proteins are often polymers and are based on a small
number of chemical elements.…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
AS Biology Unit 1 page 3



Heart with trialling improved oral rehydration solutions on
Heart structure and function. The gross structure of humans.
the human heart and its associated blood vessels in
relation to function. Myogenic stimulation of the heart Disease
and transmission of a subsequent wave of electrical Lifestyle…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
AS Biology Unit 1 page 4



Biological Molecules
Living things are made up of thousands and thousands of different chemicals. These chemicals are called
organic because they contain the element carbon. In science organic compounds contain carbon­carbon
bonds, while inorganic compounds don't. There are four important types of organic molecules…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
AS Biology Unit 1 page 5



Water
Life on Earth evolved in the water, and all life still depends on water. At least 80% of the total mass of living
organisms is water. Water molecules are charged, with the oxygen atom being slightly negative (-) and the
hydrogen atoms being…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
AS Biology Unit 1 page 6



Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates contain only the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The group includes monomers,
dimers and polymers, as shown in this diagram:
Carbohydrates

Sugars

Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides
(monomers) (dimers) (polymers)
e.g. glucose, fructose, e.g. sucrose, e.g. starch,
galactose maltose, lactose cellulose, glycogen




Monosaccharides
These…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
AS Biology Unit 1 page 7


Disaccharides
Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides are joined together by a glycosidic bond (C­O­C).
The reaction involves the formation of a molecule of water (H2O):

O O O O

H 2O
HO OH HO OH HO O OH


glycosidic bond



This shows two…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
AS Biology Unit 1 page 8



Lipids
Lipids are a mixed group of hydrophobic compounds composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
and sometime phosphorus (CHOP). The most common lipids are triglycerides and phospholipids.


Triglycerides
Triglycerides, or triacylglycerols, are made of glycerol and fatty acids.
H H H
Glycerol is…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
AS Biology Unit 1 page 9


· If the fatty acid chains in a triglyceride have no C=C double bonds, then they
H H H H
are called saturated fatty acids (i.e. saturated with hydrogen). Triglycerides
C C C C
with saturated fatty acids have a high melting point and…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
AS Biology Unit 1 page 10



Proteins
Proteins are the most complex and most diverse group of biological compounds. They have an astonishing
range of different functions, as this list shows.


structure e.g. collagen (bone, cartilage, tendon), keratin (hair), actin (muscle)
enzymes e.g. amylase, pepsin, catalase, etc (>10,000 others)
transport…

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »