OCR F212 Biological Molecules

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  • Created on: 29-04-16 17:56
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Module 1: Biological Molecules
2.1.1 Biological Molecules
Nutrient Made of Function
Carbohydrates (e.g. Simple sugars Energy source
glucose, sucrose, starch) Energy storage
Proteins Amino acids Growth and repair
Hormones
Enzymes
Fats/Lipids (e.g. Fatty acids and glycerol Energy source
phospholipid) Insulation
Membranes
Vitamins and Minerals Ions Maintain good health
Nucleic Acids (e.g. DNA) Nucleotides Making proteins
Water Hydrogen and oxygen Temperature regulation
Stay hydrated
Lubrication of joints
Needed in chemical reactions
Metabolism is the sum total of all the biochemical reactions (anabolic and catabolic) taking place in the
cells of an organism.
Anabolic Reactions : building smaller molecules into larger ones e.g. muscle growth
o A condensation reaction is where bonds are formed and water is removed
Catabolic Reactions : breaking larger molecules into smaller ones e.g. digestion
o A hydrolysis reaction is where bonds are broken by the addition of water
Monomers and Polymers:
Monomer Polymer
Definition A single, small molecule , many of which can A larger molecule which has been built up
be joined together to form a polymer from repeating units of monomers joined
together
Carbohydrates Monosaccharides (simple sugars glucose) Polysaccharides (starch, glycogen, cellulose)
Proteins Amino acids Polypeptides and proteins
Nucleic Acids Nucleotides DNA and RNA
Carbon:
Carbon can form so many different molecules because it has a valency
of 4 which means it can form 4 single covalent bonds with 4 other
atoms

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
(a) describe how hydrogen bonding occurs between water molecules, and relate this and other properties of
water, to the roles of water in living organisms
The shared electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms in
water are not shared evenly .…read more

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
(b) describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an amino acid
Structure Amino group on one end, acid group on the other end, carbon in between which
is joined to a hydrogen and an Rgroup
Different structures primary, secondary, tertiary
Function Structural components e.g. of muscle and bone (collagen)
Membrane carriers and pores e.g.…read more

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
(d) explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term primary
structure
(e) explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term secondary
structure with reference to hydrogen bonding
(f) explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term tertiary
structure, with reference to hydrophobic and hydrophilic
interactions, disulfide bonds and ionic interactions
(g) explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term quaternary structure, with reference to the structure of
haemoglobin
Denaturation:…read more

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
Heating a protein increases the kinetic energy in the molecules. This causes the molecules to vibrate and break
the bonds holding the tertiary structure in place as most of the bonds holding the tertiary structure in place are
quite weak (not covalent hydrogen, ionic, hydrophilic or hydrophobic bonds), so they are easily broken .
If enough heat is applied, the whole tertiary structure can unravel and the protein will no longer function this is
called denaturation .…read more

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
Several hundred chains become cross linked with
hydrogen bonds to make microfibrils
Several hundred microfibrils make macrofibrils
(n) describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of glycogen
(o) explain how the structure of glucose, starch (amylose), glycogen and cellulose molecules relate to their
functions in living organisms
Starch Glycogen Cellulose
Energystorage for plants Energystorage for animals and Forms the cell wall in plants
fungi
Stored in chloroplasts and Found in the form of granules in Found in the cell wall…read more

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
The hydrophilic heads are attracted to the water
molecules and the hydrophobic tails are not
attracted to the water so are inside the bilayer,
whilst the heads are on the outside protecting the
tails from the water.
Triglyceride A triglyceride consists of one glycerol molecule
bonded to t hree fatty acids .…read more

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
The centre of the bilayer is hydrophobic , so watersoluble
substances can't easily pass through the membrane is a
barrier to those substances
Cholesterol Strengthens and provides Small size and flattened shape allows them to fit in
stability to the between phospholipid molecules in the membrane.…read more

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
Calorimeter:
The calorimeter is a device that shines a beam of light through a sample . A photoelectric cell picks up the light
that is passed through the sample and gives a reading on how much light has passed through.
Use water to calibrate the colorimeter (for 100% transmission/ 0% absorption)
Place the solution in a sample chamber between the light and the photoelectric cell in a cuvette .…read more

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