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Page 1

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
2.1.1 Biological Molecules
Nutrient Made of Function
Carbohydrates (e.g. Simple sugars Energy source
glucose, sucrose, starch) Energy storage
Proteins Amino acids Growth and repair
Hormones
Enzymes
Fats/Lipids (e.g. Fatty acids and glycerol Energy source
phospholipid) Insulation
Membranes
Vitamins and Minerals Ions Maintain good health
Nucleic Acids…

Page 2

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
(a) describe how hydrogen bonding occurs between water molecules, and relate this and other properties of
water, to the roles of water in living organisms

The shared electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms in
water are not shared evenly . The oxygen atom has a…

Page 3

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Module 1: Biological Molecules

(b) describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an amino acid











Structure Amino group on one end, acid group on the other end, carbon in between which
is joined to a hydrogen and an Rgroup
Different structures primary, secondary, tertiary
Function Structural components e.g.…

Page 4

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Module 1: Biological Molecules

(d) explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term primary
structure





(e) explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term secondary
structure with reference to hydrogen bonding






(f) explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term tertiary
structure, with reference to hydrophobic and hydrophilic
interactions, disulfide…

Page 5

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
Heating a protein increases the kinetic energy in the molecules. This causes the molecules to vibrate and break
the bonds holding the tertiary structure in place as most of the bonds holding the tertiary structure in place are
quite weak (not covalent hydrogen, ionic, hydrophilic or…

Page 6

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Module 1: Biological Molecules











(k) state the structural difference between alpha and betaglucose












(l) describe, with the aid of diagrams, the formation and breakage of glycosidic bonds in the synthesis and
hydrolysis of a disaccharide (maltose) and a polysaccharide (amylose)



















(m) compare and contrast the structure and functions of starch…

Page 7

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
Several hundred chains become cross linked with
hydrogen bonds to make microfibrils
Several hundred microfibrils make macrofibrils











(n) describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of glycogen











(o) explain how the structure of glucose, starch (amylose), glycogen and cellulose molecules relate to their
functions in…

Page 8

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
The hydrophilic heads are attracted to the water
molecules and the hydrophobic tails are not
attracted to the water so are inside the bilayer,
whilst the heads are on the outside protecting the
tails from the water.


Triglyceride A triglyceride consists of one glycerol molecule
bonded…

Page 9

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
The centre of the bilayer is hydrophobic , so watersoluble
substances can't easily pass through the membrane is a
barrier to those substances
Cholesterol Strengthens and provides Small size and flattened shape allows them to fit in
stability to the between phospholipid molecules in the membrane.…

Page 10

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Module 1: Biological Molecules
Calorimeter:
The calorimeter is a device that shines a beam of light through a sample . A photoelectric cell picks up the light
that is passed through the sample and gives a reading on how much light has passed through.
Use water to calibrate the colorimeter…

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