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Size and surface area
All organisms need to exchange materials with their surroundings. Things such as:

Respiratory gases ­ oxygen, carbon dioxide
Nutrients ­ glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals
Excretory products ­ urea, carbon dioxide
Heat

This exchange can take place in two ways:

Passively ­ no energy…

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A large animal such as an elephant has a lot of heat-producing tissue and a relatively small
surface area through which to lose it. Such an animal needs strategies to lose heat. These
can include:

Physical adaptions ­ i.e. large ears with a good blood supply near to the surface,…

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