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Section 1.1: Causes of Disease Pathogens
Section 1.2: Epidemiology
Section 1.3: Lifestyle and Health
Section 2.1: Enzymes and Digestion
Section 2.2: Carbohydrates ­ Monosaccharides
Section 2.3: Carbohydrates ­ disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Section 2.4 ­ Carbohydrate digestion
Section 2.5 ­ Proteins
Section 2.6 ­ Enzyme action
Section 2.7 ­ Factors affecting enzyme action
Section 2.8 ­ Enzyme inhabitation
Section 3.1 ­ Investigating the structure of cells
Section 3.2 ­ The electron microscope
Section 3.3 ­ Structure of epithelial cells
Section 3.4 Lipids
Section 3.…read more

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Section 1.1: Causes of Disease Pathogens
Health ­ A state of physical and mental wellbeing, free from disease.
Disease ­ An abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and
is associated with specific symptoms.
Noninfectious ­ Sometimes called disorders and can be caused by a broad range
of environmental factors. They cannot be transferred.
Infectious ­ Caused by pathogens
Inherited ­ due to a mistake or alternation in the genetic makeup e.g. down
syndrome, cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease etc.…read more

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Section 1.2: Epidemiology
Is the study of patterns in diseases and the various factors that effect the spread of disease.
A correlation is different causal link.
Strong, positive correlation
Weak correlation
Negative Correlation
How to prove a link
Wide samples must be used.
Data must be analysed over long periods of time.
Variables must be controlled.…read more

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Demographic Transition
Explains how the population changes over time e.g. from high birth rate.
Section 1.3: Lifestyle and Health
Risk ­ A measure of probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a
given hazard.
We need to look at probability that a hazard will occur as a consequence of the
hazardous event.
If the consequence of the hazard is high and the probability is low, there is little
cause for concern.
A major concern is when both are high.…read more

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Genetics can cause approximately 5% of cancers. Tumour producing genes
Lifestyle factors can expose you to more carcinogens.
More you smoke, higher the risk.
Diet ­ low fat, high fibre, fruit etc.
Radiation, uv light and xrays are carcinogens.
Physical activity ­ exercise reduces the risk.
Alcohol ­ increases risk.
Hormones ­ high level of sex hormones can increase risk.
Prevention is better than cure.
Early diagnosis.
Surgical removal ­ Easiest when the tumour is benign.…read more

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Section 2.1: Enzymes and Digestion
Glands produce enzymes that are used to break down large molecules into smaller
ones that are ready for abortion.
The digestive system provides an interface between the body and the environment
because it allows food to pass through it.
Major parts of the digestive system
The Oesophagus is made up of a thick muscular wall and is adapted so that food
can pass down it easily from the mouth to the stomach.…read more



Amazing notes! The best I've ever seen, thank you so much!

Tamara Abrahams

Really good notes, thanks!

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