Unit 2.7 The social, ethical and environmental implications of scientific discoveries and technological developments

Unit 2.7 The social, ethical and environmental implications of scientific discoveries and technological developments 

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  • Created on: 12-01-11 09:25

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The social, ethical and environmental implications of
scientific discoveries and technological developments
The environment and global warming
In recent decades there has been an increase in the world's temperatures, and temperatures in
Alaska, western Canada and eastern Russia -- traditionally among the coldest parts of…

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Consequently, the Earth's average surface temperature is maintained by this blanket at about
The other greenhouse effect is known as 'manmade' or 'enhanced', caused by human
actions such as the increased consumption of coal, oil and natural gas by domestic users,
industry and motor vehicles (and to a lesser…

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Since the dangers of halocarbons became evident, steps have been taken to phase them out, but
production in the UK continued to 2000. Phasingout measures emerged, after the signing of the
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987, with several revisions
since. However, it is estimated…

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Flooding in areas like Bangladesh is washing away lowlying homes and refugees are on the
move. In 2006, 37 inches of rain fell in Mumbai, India, in one day. Severe floods hit Hull and
the East Riding (where over 15,000 homes were flooded), parts of south Yorkshire and
Gloucestershire in…

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Critics have argued that the overall target of each nation reducing emissions by 5 % of 1990
levels are modest and that targets must be much more ambitious to be effective. Of
European Union countries, the UK has a good record on reducing emissions but progress
across the EU is…

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At the end of 2006, the Stern Report was published in the UK. The report, probably the first really
comprehensive view of the economics of climate change, was commissioned by the Treasury and
conducted by Sir Nicholas Stern, the former World Bank chief economist. The 600page report
suggested that global…

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That carbon dioxide strongly absorbs infrared radiation is a matter of fact. Carbon dioxide is
the most dominant humaninfluenced greenhouse gas and is responsible for much of the
warming arising from changes in atmospheric concentrations.
Records suggest that carbon dioxide has increased since industrialisation began after 1760,
and most noticeably…

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The UK's chief environmental minister, Hilary Benn, leader of the delegation to Bali, talked of a
'historic breakthrough' he claimed that all the world's nations had agreed to negotiate a deal by
2009 and that countries would adopt a shared vision for the future. We must hope that Benn's

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buying energyefficient Arated kitchen appliances such as washing machines and
buying more fuelefficient cars
making greater use of public transport s taking fewer foreign holidays involving air travel
recycling more household waste
being prepared to accept more greenbased taxes
buying more locally produced food
cycling or walking to work…

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OPEC: the Organization of Petroleum Countries (OPEC) founded in 1960. ft now has 13 members
from Middle Eastern, African and South American countries. It seeks to coordinate oil production
policies to help stabilise world oil supplies and prices, while securing a reasonable return for OPEC
member countries. Critics see it…


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