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The relationship between technology, science, society and
Consumption of the Earth's resources
There are many forms of energy but two of the most important are:
kinetic energy, associated with movement
chemical energy, which is stored in fossil fuels or food

Central to the development…

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transport, comes from nonrenewable fossil fuels formed from the organic remains of prehistoric
animals and plants. These fossil fuels have a negative effect on the environment because they
release harmful carbon dioxide emissions -- the most prevalent and harmful of the gases known
as 'greenhouse gases'.

Oil and natural gas…

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fossil fuels: fuels found within the rocks of the Earth's surface, having been formed millions of
years ago from dead animals and plants, Once they are used they cannot be replaced.

Advantages of fossil fuels
Very large amounts of electricity can be generated, relatively cheaply, from small
amounts of…

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various forms of water power. These offer considerable potential, not least in environmental terms,
but their use so far has been limited and the UK government has targeted a significant increase in
the amount of electricity generated from renewable sources.

According to a report by the Energy Saving Trust, British…

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There are plans in Cornwall, which has limited gas supplies to many areas and 300 miles of
coastline, to develop the largest wavepower project in Europe at a cost of £21 million, using a site
some 10 miles off the north Cornwall coast and linked to the shore by an…

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The sun is extremely powerful and solar energy can be harnessed from the sun's rays. There are
many types of solar power applications, from calculators to plants capable of generating electricity
on a large scale. Central to solar power is the 'photovoltaic' (PV) cell.

In the UK, solar panels containing…

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techniques as a potential substitute for petrol. In the UK, sugar beet is being used to create ethanol
for a petrol mix and, in the USA, maize is a widely used raw material in ethanol production. The
USA and Brazil (where sugar cane is widely used) are the world's leading…

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Tidal and hydroelectric power have high startup costs.
Wind turbines often meet with opposition because they can be noisy and visually

How the UK government sees it
Towards the end of 2007, it was announced that a new agency was being
established to manage Britain's commitment to the development…

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Pressure groups generate a lot of publicity, but the dangers are mostly in the longer term and
governments have a short life. Some longerterm planning and target setting is inevitable but most
people are more concerned about themselves than about future generations.

We cannot safely predict future scientific and technical…

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the physical protection of food products, which are often sent thousands of miles
to meet demand all the year round for what were once seasonal fruits and
protection from contamination from parasites and pathogenic bacteria
the inclusion of essential information such as price, weight, sellby date, cooking
instructions, ingredients…


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