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UNIT 2: SCIENCE AND SOCIETY


Social and economic trends and
constraints
Economic issues on a national scale: the workings of business, commerce and industry
It has been said, many years ago, that 'money makes the world go round' and that 'money is the
root of all evil'. Part of the…

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reward, through the payment of dividends, the shareholders, who took a risk when
they bought shares in the company, the value of which may go up or down

Competition is central to the private sector, with each firm striving to be the most efficient and most
competitive in the market…

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closer to population centres in the midlands and southeast of England. Foreign competition had
intensified by the 1920s and economic depression hit traditional industrial areas, with their scarred
landscapes, very badly in the 1930s, although there was some recovery after 1945.

As the UK became less dependent on secondary manufacturing…

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Rising prices may affect people unevenly. (The average increase may be 3% but some people may
spend a higher proportion of their income on goods and services where prices are rising more
rapidly.) Those who rely on savings will see the value of their savings fail. The lower paid are…

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There is less chance of being robbed.
They can help people to build up a good credit history, which is advantageous when
seeking to borrow money or secure a mortgage.
Some banks donate a percentage of each individual's spending to a charity.
They are widely accepted around the world, and…

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air, small amounts of hydrogen would appear. Rutherford realised that in the presence of powerful
radioactive rays, nitrogen turns into hydrogen and oxygen.

Alpha particles produced by the radium embedded themselves within the nuclei of nitrogen atoms
while expelling single protons. What remained was an oxygen nucleus. The protons were…

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There is support for the construction of a new generation of nuclear power stations in the UK -- not
least from British Energy, which may join up with its French equivalent, EDF (with companies like
E.ON UK and RWE also said to be interested) -- particularly in view of:
the…

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Early in 2008, after 4 years of argument, it was reported that the cabinet had backed plans to invest
in a new generation of 10 nuclear power plants. The aim is to reduce dependency on imported gas
and oil and to generate more than 20% of Britain's electricity from nuclear…

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the operation of the NIMBY syndrome
memories of the horrors of Chernobyl
fear of a terrorist strike
the availability of relatively plentiful alternative powergenerating sources such as
gas and electricity
the possibilities offered by renewable sources of energy generation
cost and the long time span involved in developing nuclear facilities…

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In France, nuclear power is widely used for the generation of electricity. In the UK, governments
have been more cautious. Using nuclear power is a complex process and not without its risks, but
it does not lead to the emission of harmful gases in the way that burning fossil fuels…

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