Unit 1 - Transport - Key Terms - Glossary - OCR

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Transport Glossary
DIFFUSION The net movement of molecules from an area
of high concentration to one of low
concentration
SURFACE-AREA-TO-VOLUME RATIO Some animals have a large surface area
compared with their volume. The ratio is
affected by shape of the animal
LUNGS Allow air in and out of the body, needed to
breathe and for ventilation
TRACHEA The windpipe; the tube that goes from the
back of the throat to the lungs, thick walls and
several layers of tissue
BRONCHI Branches off from the trachea. Thick walls and
several layers of tissue
BRONCHIOLES Branch off from the bronchi. Mostly made of
smooth muscle and elastic fibres
ALVEOLI Clusters of air sacs which are needed for
transporting oxygen (by diffusion) into blood
capillaries
INHALATION/INSPIRATION Breathing in
EXHALATION/EXPIRATION Breathing out
CARTILAGE Plays a structural role in trachea and bronchi,
holding them open to prevent collapse when
air pressure is low during inhalation (C shaped
rings)
SMOOTH MUSCLE Has the ability to contract, constricting the
airway. Allows how much air can flow by
constriction of the lumen
ELASTIC FIBRES Contracts and recoils to increase or decrease
the diameter of the lumen.
GOBLET CELLS Secrete mucus to trap particles from the air to
reduce risk of infection
CILIATED EPITHELIUM Numerous, tiny hair-like structures to waft
mucus up the airway to the back of the throat
SPIROMETER Measures breathing patterns and volume of
oxygen intake
TIDAL VOLUME Volume of air moved in and out of lungs with
each breath you are at rest
VITAL CAPACITY Largest volume of air that can be moved into
and out of the lungs
RESIDUAL VOLUME Volume of air that always remains in the lungs
DEAD SPACE The air in the bronchioles, bronchi and trachea
INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME How much air can be breathed in over and
above the normal tidal volume when you take a
deep breath
EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME How much air can be breathed out over and
above the amount that is breathed in a tidal
volume breath

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SINGLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM In fish: blood flows from heart to gills and then
to the body before returning to the heart
DOUBLE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Two circuits; one carries blood to the lungs to
pick up oxygen (pulmonary circulation)
The other circuit carries the oxygen around the
body and to the tissues (systemic circulation)
ATRIA The top chambers in the heart. Have very thin
muscle as they do not create much pressure
VENTRICLES The bottom chambers in the heart.…read more

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