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Digestion
CD= chemical digestion(large insoluble to small soluble. HYDROLYSING
ENZYMES)
PD=physical digestion(food broken down by structures)
Mouth:
· CD- saliva in mouth contains amylase.
· PD- grinding of teeth increase SA:V of food.
Oesophagus:
· PD- muscles relax + contract to push down food.
Stomach:
·CD- protease, HCL kills harmful
microorganisms and is optimum ph for enzymes.
·PD- muscular contraction (peristalsis) breaks
food into smaller pieces.
Liver:
·CD- Bile emulsifies lipids decreasing SA:V and it
neutralises acid needed in small intestine.
Pancreas:
· CD- secrets amylase, protease and lipase.
Small Intestine:
· CD- Contains amylase, protease and lipase.
Most nutrients of food passes through lining to
blood.
· PD- Peristalsis.
Large intestine, rectum and anus:
·Undigested food enters LI from SI. Water is
reabsorbed. Faeces is stored in rectum and…read more

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Carbohydrates
Carbon atoms readily form bonds therefore are
the backbones of a lot of molecules. Many
organic materials such as carbohydrates are
made up of individual molecules. These are
called monomers. When monomers join to
form a longer chain this is called a polymer.
In carbohydrates the basic monomer unit is a
sugar known as a saccharide. A single
monomer is therefore called a
monosaccharide, a pair of monosaccharides
combined are called a disaccharide. And larger
chains of monosaccharides form
polysaccharides.…read more

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Monosaccharides
Sweet testing, soluble substances that have
the general formula (CH2O)n where n can be
any number from 3 to 7.
Most common is glucose which is a hexose
monosaccharide as it has 6 carbons. Others are
Fructose(Hexose), Ribose(Pentose),
Glyceraldehyde(Triose).
This is the structure of alpha
glucose. Simplified alpha
glucose only contains the
backbone, the o, h, oh on the
right hand side and the oh, h
and branch on the left.…read more

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Disaccharides
These are pairs of monosaccharides
combined to form a disaccharide.
Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
Glucose + Galactose = Lactose.
Disaccharides are linked through a
condensation reaction which involves
the removal of water molecule.
They are held together by a glycosidic
bond.
When water is added to a disaccharide
under suitable conditions it breaks the
glycosidic bond and is hydrolysed.…read more

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Polysaccharides
Formed by combing many monosaccharides in
condensation reactions which form glycosidic bonds.
They are insoluble which makes them suitable for
storage. When they are hydrolysed they break down
into disaccharides or monosaccharides. Cellulose is a
polysaccharides that is used for structural support in
plant cells.
Starch
Amylose: is simply poly-(1-4) glucose, so is a straight
chain. The chain is floppy and tends to coil up into
helix. IT is found in wheat and is used in plants for long
term sugar storage, compact and insoluble.
Amylopectin is a poly(1-4) glucose with 4% (1-6)
branches. It has a larger SA so it can be broken down
more quickly by amylase to for glucose, however it is
not as energy dense as amylose.…read more

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