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Unit 4 Block A, Teacher A
Summary of unit:
· To understand the concept of a metabolic
· Aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
· Practical using redox indicators to illustrate
the role of hydrogen acceptors.
· Kidney structure and function
· Osmoregulation and the involvement of
ADH.…read more

Slide 2

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Lesson 1
· Metabolic processes
· Structure and function of ATP, and its
importance in cells.
· Glycolysis
· Anaerobic respiration in yeast and animal
cells.…read more

Slide 3

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1. What is a metabolic pathway?
A metabolic pathway is a series of
enzyme-controlled reactions in which
the product of one reaction is the substrate
of the next.…read more

Slide 4

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2. Metabolic pathways-
Two types:
· Anabolic pathways: biomolecules being
constructed (built up)
­ e.g. protein synthesis, photosynthesis
· Catabolic pathways molecules being
broken down
­ e.g. respiration, digestion
(Hint to remember: anabolic steroids
build up a body- builder's muscles!)…read more

Slide 5

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3. Control of metabolic pathways
· Only happen if an enzyme is present.
· Enzyme activity: affected by pH, temperature
and substrate concentration
However metabolic pathways are mainly
controlled by:
· Controlling the expression of genes that
produce enzymes
· Use of negative feedback inhibition, where the
product often inhibits a previous enzyme.…read more

Slide 6

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4. Two main types of enzymes in
metabolic pathways:
· Oxidoreductases:
­ transfer oxygen, hydrogen or electrons
between molecules.
· Hydrolases:
­ Use water to break bonds formed in
condensation reactions (i.e.catalyse
hydrolysis reactions)…read more

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