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  • Organelles
    • Nucleus
      • Role - act as control centre of the cell, organising the production of MRNA & tRNA.
        • Retain the genetic material of the cell in the form of DNA & chromosomes.
          • Manufacture ribosomal RNA & ribosomes.
      • Chromosomes - consist of protein-bound linear DNA.
      • Nucleoplasm- granular jelly-like substance that makes up bulk of nucleus.
      • Nuclear Pores - allow passage of large molecules like messenger RNA out of the nucleus.
      • Nuclear envelope-  double membrane, 'envelopes' the nucleus. continuous with the ER, ribosomes on its surface.
    • Mitochondria
      • site of aerobic stages of respiration. responsible for the production of energy. Carrier molecule, ATP, from respiratory substrates such as glucose.
      • Inner Membrane - folded to form extensions (cristae)
      • Outer membrane - controls entry & exit of material.
      • Cristae - extensions of inner membrane, give large surface area for attachment of enzymes and other proteins involved in respiration.
      • Matrix - contains enzymes & proteins needed for respiration.
    • Chloroplasts
      • Role - carry out photosynthesis. contain DNA & ribosomes to quickly manufacture proteins for PS
      • Chloroplast envelope - double plasma membrane, selective about what can enter & leave.
      • Grana -stacks up to 100 Thylakoids.
      • Thylakoids - contain chlorophyll, where first stage of photosynthesis takes place.
      • Stroma - fluid filled with matrix where the second stage of PS happens.
      • Granal Membrane- provide large surface area for attachment of chlorophyll .
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Role - transport system throughout the cell.
      • Rough  ER -ribosomes one the surface if membranesprovidng large surface area for synthesis of proteins & glycoproteins.
      • Smooth ER- synthesise, store & transport lipids & carbohydrates.
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • Role- produce carbohydrates to form glycoproteins, secretory enzymes. Modify & customise proteins, form lysosomes, transport. modify & store lipids.
      • Cisternae-compact stacks of membranesthat make up flattened sacs
      • Modifies the proteins by adding non-protein compounds such as carbohydrates. Labels them so they can be sorted and sent to their correct destinations.
      • features hollow vesicles at the edges.
    • Lysosomes
      • Role - hydrolize materials ingested by phagotic cells. release enzymes to outside of the cell ignored to destroy material around the cell.
        • Digest worn out organelles so useful chemicals they are made of can be reused, completely break down cells after they've died.
      • formed from the vesicles at edges of the golgi, contain enzymes.
    • Ribosomes
      • Role- synthesise proteins
      • small cytoplasmic granules found in cells
      • can be found in cytoplasm or connected to the rough ER.
      • contains a small and large sub unit, each sub it contains ribosomal RNA & protein.


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