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Messages and ideas that schools do not
directly teach but that they transmit to
children via routines, procedures and rules.
Functionalists see this as a vital tool for
integrating students into the society they live
in.
Marxists and feminists believe it legitimises
male and ruling class dominance, and helps
maintain and reproduce it.
The hidden curriculum…read more

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Hierarchy of management
Insistence on punctuality
Uniform: imposing schools identity on the pupil
Class sets and levels defined by age and ability
Elements of the curriculum and the school's
pastoral system*
Organisation of classroom: teachers up front,
students having to look up while being looked
down on.
The expectations teachers bring with them for
some students
How is the hidden curriculum
transmitted?
*Key Stages (1-8) and form teachers, deputy heads and heads of schools…read more

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All subcultures have things in common:
their members gain status, mutual support and a
sense of belonging from the subcultures.
Hargreaves (1967) looked at antischool working-
class subcultures are predominantly found in the
bottom streams of secondary schools.
He blames the labelling of some pupils as `low-
stream failures'.
As they feel they cant achieve mainstream
success, they substitute that with their own set of
delinquent values
For example , not respecting teachers, messing
about, arriving late or not arriving to class at all,
having fights, building up a reputation with the
opposite sex and so on.
Pupil subcultures…read more

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Male subcultures.
The `macho lads' The academic achievers The `new enterprisers'
Willis identified them as Group from skilled manual w/c Group who has embraced the
Boys who are hostile to background who want to have `new vocational' and reject the
academic success and are often traditional academics.
authority bullied.
`Real Englishmen' Gay students
Small group of m/c students Mac and Ghaill look at the
who reject teachers as they students who heterosexist and
view their culture as superior homophobic nature of schools…read more

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Mac and Ghaill (1994)
· Although girls don't like the masculinity of the `macho lads', most
sought boyfriends.
· Lower class girls even see work as potential marriage markets.
Re-masculinization of the vocational curriculum.
Higher status subjects such as business studies,
technology etc. are dominated by males
Griffin (1985): White w/c girls in their first two years
of employment were observed as forming friendship
groups.
Their deviance is observed by their sexual behaviour
rather than `trouble making'
Female Subcultures…read more

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