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Why has girls' achievement improved?
The Job Market
· Increasing opportunities for women in the service
sector, a decrease of exclusively male positions in
· Most girls have mothers in well paid positions
providing a positive role model.
Female Expectations
·1976 and 1994, Sue Sharpe discovered that female priorities
changed from `love, marriage, husbands, children , jobs and
careers' to `job, career and being able to support themselves'.
·Females view education as the vehicle towards their future not
the stopgap before marriage.
· Greater emphasis on equal opportunities giving
girls a greater chance to access the curriculum by it
being `girl-friendly'.
· School is more gender sensitive. Instilling the
constant challenge to sexism in all students.…read more

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· There is mounting evidence that girls simply work harder
than boys in school
· Girls take more care with notes and are more well
organised than boys
· Girls are less likely to view the school walls as a barrier to
extending their knowledge, feeling free to work at home as
well as the classroom.
Changes in the organisation of education
· Pirie (2001): O-levels were a boys exams which was about
last minute revision and cramming. GCSEs encourage
female behavioural traits such as organisational skills and
sustained motivation for c/w and so on.
· Debra Myhill (1999): girls success has paralleled the
increase in unseen examination assessments showing a lack
of dependence on c/w
Better socialization for schooling
· Hannan (2000): Girls use their spare time verbally
interacting with each other whereas boys find themselves
preoccupied with physical/virtual games limiting their
vocabulary outside of school.
· Kirby (2000): a decline of family discussion time linked
with the replacement of communicative play for TV,
computer games etc. has stunted language development in
boys.…read more

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What are your concerns about boys'
Evidence shows that achievement of
both boys and girls has increased
over the last 20 years, girls have just
improved at a faster rate than boys.
Boys are becoming less motivated
students and women are seemingly
more encouraged in the school
Women make up over 50%of the
teaching profession both at primary…read more

Slide 5

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Widening achievement gap
@ Age 6, Ø boys are @ Age 11, Ø boys are 9 15% behind @ GCSE in
behind girls in reading months behind in English with half the
speaking skills, 12 in number choosing the
literacy and 6 in subject @ A-level
White working class Boys are becoming less Young men are more
boys are the lowest desirable to likely to be excluded
achieving group for employees, adding to than young women
the 1st time the govt. anxiety over…read more

Slide 6

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Why are
boys making slower progress?
in the job Social
market/st control Unrealisti
and peer
atus difference c attitudes
frustratio s
Mac and Ghaill
(1994) identify
Lower stream
band/sets' w/c
Mitsos and
Browne (1998) Boys are
the `crisis of boys form anti- argues teachers `overconfident'
masculinity as school are not as critical when it comes to
the key problem subcultures. with boys as they exams whereas
for boys. Hargreaves are with girls girls are self
(1967) and Willis meaning they doubting and try
Losing their (1977) study not improving or harder.
expected showed it was practicing.
`breadwinner' inevitable as it According to
role in society to was a coping Teachers Francis (2000),
equality has de- strategy. generally have boys don't
motivated boys. lower assume to be
Being seen as expectations of more able than
This has forced `big' or boys than girls. girls any longer.
them to reject important in the The boy will be They also have
education and eyes of friends turned off by the career goals that
define their own and other people female are less realistic
masculinity. around you. dominated than boys.
primary school.…read more

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