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Topic 3.8 & 8.2

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3.8.1(1) State that photosynthesis involves the conversion of light energy into chemical energy

During photosynthesis, light energy from the sun is transferred to chemical energy in the form of
organic compounds for plants, algae and some bacteria.

3.8.2 (1)State that light from the Sun is composed of a range of…

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3.8.8(2) Outline the effects of temperature, light intensity and carbon dioxide on the rate of

Limiting Factor Effect
Temperature At low temperatures, all of the enzymes
that catalyse the reaction of the Calvin
Cycle work slowly
At high temperatures, RuBP carboxylase
denatures and works less effectively so
rate of…

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8.2.2 (1) State that photosynthesis consists of light dependent & light independent reactions.

Photosynthesis consists of light dependent reactions, to produce intermediate compounds, which
are used in light independent reactions to produce glucose, amino acids and other organic

8.2.3(3) Explain light dependent reactions

8.2.4(3) Explain

photophosphorylation in terms of…

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Chlorophyll are grouped together in photosystems, held in the thylakoid membranes of the grana.
Here, several hundred chlorophyll molecules plus accessory pigments are arranged, which funnel
light energy to the reaction centre.

Photosystem 1: has a reaction centre (single chlorophyll molecule) activated by a light of a
wavelength 700nm.


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product. Thus it forms a cycle, known as the Calvin cycle.
3. Carbon dioxide enters the chloroplast via diffusion and is fixed in a carboxylation reaction
with RuBP to form a six carbon compound which immediately splits, resulting in two
4. This is carried out by the enzyme ribulose…

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there is an unused excess that has been absorbed, showing that the energy transfer between
pigments is not entirely efficient and energy gained from electromagnetic radiation via absorption
does not equal the amount of energy used for photosynthesis.

8.2.8 (3) Explain the concept of limiting factors in photosynthesis, with reference…


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