Slides in this set
Stages to development...(Rostow) Barriers to development....
1) Traditional Society -Economic: Vicious cycle of poverty, finance never accumulates.
There is an inability to move to the next stage. No money to buy
new technologies. If there is no profit- there is no development.
3) Take Off
- Cultural: Norms and values of the culture prevent development.
4) Drive to Maturity Collectivism and ascribed status discourages entrepreneurs.
5) Age of Mass Consumption Capitalists never emerge, which stunts the evolutionary process to
industrialisation. No entrepreneurs means no development.
Parsons: Family structure hinders development.
Evaluation of Modernisation Theory...
-Long lasting influence, evidence shows
that indicators have risen, the is an Promoting development.....
emphasis on progress, not reformation.
-Economic Catalysts: Aid payments to provide the injection of
Weaknesses capital needed. Introduction of new technologies to assist
-Not sustainable in the environment. production. Wages need to effectively trickle down to workers.
-Ignores external factors. -Cultural Catalysts: Education systems need to be provided with
western meritocratic values. Encourage a mass media to spread
-Too much focus on the American Dream western values more quickly. Process of urbanisation as values and
-Ethnocentric- western values, inequality, cultural change spreads quicker in towns and cities.
-Ignores historical Context…read more
Features of theory.... Explaining Underdevelopment....
-Economies grow when state intervention is absent. -Corruption is endemic in the majority world.
Wealth accumulates when induviduals are left to their Development is undermined by elites. Money goes to the
self interests. Take a lassiez faire approach to politics. wrong places, elites use it leaving people to suffer.
-Lack of taxation will encourage entrepreneurs, and -Aid hinders development. Bauer- it undermines
production will be governed by supply and demand. entrepreneurship, props up corrupt regimes, distorts
-1980's Regan and Thatcher. Rise of Neoliberalism. markets. It delays changes which need to happen to
Influence of the World Bank, IMF and WTO. become developed, countries are stagnant and dependant
on aid. It is also not sustainable.
-Economic mismanagement as governmental control is
inefficient and expensive. There is subsidised production
Evaluation.... so businesses are artificially buoyant. Inefficient public
Strengths services should be privatised, as it creates a tax burden.
Labour unions make work force uncompetitive.
-Shows development shouldn't be left to the
western world. Explains how aid can be negative,
shows that freedom for all is needed.
-Romanticizes the free market. It can be
exploitative. -Control economic mismanagement. Use new methods. SAPS- loans with
conditions attached. Only get help if you obey the IMF.
-SAPs set countries up for fall- un protected.
-Key themes: shift towards exports (cash crops), remove trade barriers,
-Misattribution- ignores how people get rich privatisation, cut back on public spending, deregulate. Integrate into the
initially (military advantage) global market to be come more attractive to TNC's.…read more
Counter Industrial Theories
Critical of western models to development. Sustainable Development...
Industrialisation is problematic, and should -Environmentalism: Industrialisation causes environmental harm as
not be imposed on the south.
the earth cannot sustain a western lifestyle. Strain occurs when the
Environmentalism, neo-populism and
biosphere degrades, pollution occurs and there is depletion of natural
Buddhist economic are central.
-Neo-populism: Industrialisation has human factors such as
People Centred approaches: focus on the unemployment, dependence, it breaks up communities.
induviduals and communities and improve -Buddhist Economics: Deeper critique- other theories assume that
not replace lifestyles. There is emphasis on higher consumption leads to happier people, which is not true. We
environmental and social sustainability. should learn from western mistakes.
Intermediate Technology: Improve not - Sustainability: there is a lack of natural resources. We need ways
replace existing processes. Microcredit: that go further and can be replenished. In terms of economics, it
small loans to help businesses lift off. Invest doesn't have to rely on outside funds, or aid for continuity. All of the
in small technologies. Schumacher states: community are involves, avoiding marginalisation.
We need creativity and not consumption.
-Ghandi: Western technology has failed society. People are much
Previous models confused well being with
human well being. happier in small self sufficient communities. (Swadeshi). Micro
economics can help society.
Strengths: Development is people focused, it forces ecological issues, it brings up the importance of communities, not
Weaknesses: Microcredit does not make huge improvements. It is hypocritical `oh you do not want to be like us', too
much focus on the environment, ignores the positive impact of industrialisation in the long term.…read more
Neo-colonialism... Mercantile Capitalism: Informal exploitative relationships are established by explorers.
They establish trade routes, but due to military strength, the west benefited. The
-Colonies break away explorers found that there were areas with established lifestyles. The slave triangle
but damage still remains begins. Goods from the west are sold at an African port. The ships are then filled with
as they are still slaves who are taken to the Caribbean to be sold. Wealth in the south is exported
dependant, and through exploitation of natural and human resources.
exploitation continues to
occur. Colonialism: Formalised exploitative relationships. Rich nations took control of the
-Ex colonies remain a countries and regions, dividing up existing nations, cultures and tribes (divide and rule) . E.
source of cheap labour g. the scramble for Africa. 100,000 areas were amalgamated into 40 European colonies.
and resources. Social. Economic, Political systems collapse.
-Prices are in a -Economic: Agricultural production changed into what powers wanted. Craftsmen lost
downward spiral. their jobs, and couldn't compete with mass production. Cultural: Existing beliefs are
replaced with new technology and civilised cultures. Education and language was
-Chain of exploitation: destroyed. Places became reliant on powers for knowledge. Political: Governing structure
rich nations (metropolis) was reshaped as an extension of imperial power. Families were ripped apart and those who
still exploit poor nations had feuds were forced together. Caused a genocide in Rwanda 1994.
-World remains impoverished, nations are dependant on powers, lack of institutions.
Strengths: Blames the west, not the poor themselves. Sees nations as interconnected, interrogates the route of poverty
at a deep level.
Weaknesses: It provides no strategy out of poverty. It doesn't explain why some have succeeded whilst being a satellite,
and why some have issues without colonial powers. Dependence is not always a bad thing.…read more
World Systems Theory
Introduction... Description of theory....
-Modified version of - Wallerstein was influenced by Marxism.
- The global economy causes inequality. It is explained using the capitalist
-It adds a 3rd system. world system, based around 500 years ago where there was expansion.
-The three worlds are: core 1) CORE: highly developed, full capitalism, there is a central government, a
nations, semi periphery nations beurocracy, industrial bases, it controls world trade and finance.
and periphery nations.
2) PERIFERY: under developed- unequal, weak government, indigenous elites,
-Immanuel Wallerstein came up provide a source for raw materials, labour and captive markets.
with the theory.
3) SEMI-PERIPHERY: aspire to be a core, or used to be exploited by the core,
but also exploits periphery industrialised but less sophisticated.
internal factors to Analysis of Theory...
development. - The Semi Periphery Nations Have a Choice. They could change to the Core.
- Ignores -The Theory Shows that the Global Hierarchy is not fixed.
corruption of the
third world. Leaders -Hard to move position due to the manipulation of monopoly and the power that holds.
are spending -Dependency on Core nations: Orientated around narrow exports- few materials, TNC's
wastefully causing development, discourages local production. There is a lack of industrial capacity. They rely on
under development. core nations to buy materials. There is foreign debt- there is reliance for help.…read more
Integration Thesis: Marginalisation Thesis:
-Liberal feminism. -Dependency Theory.
- Traditional Society is patriarchal. Western ways have improved -Maintains that women are
women's rights. Introduces progressive norms and values. There are excluded via the process of
changes in attitudes and legislation. development.
-In traditional cultures women
had an important role.
-Now TNC's exploit women, act as pimps for women's small hands.
-Colonialism ruined traditional
-Gender inequality has formed via the development of capitalism. society, as has modernisation.
-Capitalism needs patriarchy to exist to be successful.
-The role of the family: key source of
oppression, feminism should gain -There is a relationship between women and the environment.
reproductive rights. If we remove -Women are better for the environment than men- women are
mens control over contraception more in touch with the environment.
women will have power. Women
should also have access to abortion. -Men are responsible for environmental damage as they are
reckless and are too dominant over it.…read more