The Reasons for Hitler's Appointment as Chancellor 1933

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The Reasons for Hitler's Appointment as Chancellor of Germany on the 30th January 1933
Key question:
How the political crisis of 1930-1933 helped Adolf Hitler become Chancellor of Germany on
the 30th January 1933?
Strengths of Hitler and the Nazi Party
+ Hitler Factor ­ Hitler was a gifted orator and a charismatic leader. Strasser claimed that "his
words go like an arrow to their target."
+ Effectiveness of Nazi Propaganda ­ The role of Joseph Goebbels, the `bread and work'
mantra. The use of newspapers, radio and mass rallies.
+ Role of the SA ­ Influence youth, intimidate political opponents.
+ Role of the SS ­ Use of terror, helped to `encourage' voting of the Nazi Party.
+ Increasing electoral strength ­ Nazis have 230 seats in the Reichstag by July 1932 (37% of
vote); all emanates from Hitler's decision to play the constitutional card after the failure of
the Munich Putsch.
+ Nazi Party's Financial Strength ­ It was funded by business and media tycoons like Thyssen
and Hugenburg.
+ Going against Communism ­ The strong anti-Communist stance of the Nazi Party won
substantial support for Hitler and the NSDAP. Middle class Germans (businessmen) fiercely
opposed Communism and they turn to the Nazis as the most effective opponents of
Weaknesses of the Weimar Republic
- Collapse of economy during the Great Depression ­ This weakens `pro-Weimar/democratic'
parties and strengthens extremist parties.
- Overuse of Article 48 ­ This was overused particularly by Brüning. It was used on 5 occasions
in 1930 but used on 66 occasions in 1932. This leads to a `semi-dictatorship' becoming a
- Negatives of Proportional Representation ­ This voting system creates a succession of weak
governments where Chancellors have little support in the Reichstag.
- Disadvantages and weaknesses of individual chancellors ­ Brüning is nicknamed `The Hunger
Chancellor'. Von Papen and Von Schleicher have a lack of support in the Reichstag.
- Enemies and political intrigue ­ Von Papen and Von Schleicher rivals over who will become
Chancellor. Hitler takes advantage of this.
- Morse view towards the Weimar Republic ­ President von Hindenburg was no great lover of
the Weimar Republic and its liberal democracy. He was prepared to over-use Article 48 and
to surround himself with cronies who indulge in political intrigue which benefits Hitler.
- Never ending willingness of Right-Wing establishment ­ This was led by Von Papen to enter
into a deal with Hitler in belief that Hitler could be controlled as a "puppet". He undermined
Hitler's abilities greatly.


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