First 453 words of the document:
20th September 2012
The `New World Order'?
At the end of the Cold War President Bush Snr proclaimed the emergence of
a `new world order'. The idea was first mooted by Gorbachev in a speech to
the UN General Assembly in 1988. Although the idea of a `new' world order
often lacked clear definition, it undoubtedly expressed quintessentially
liberal hopes and expectations. Central to this emerging world order was the
recognition of the need to settle disputes peacefully, to resist aggression and
expansionism, to control and reduce military arsenals, and to ensure the just
treatment of domestic populations through respect for human rights. In
addition to calling for a strengthening of the UN and a reinvigoration of its
peacekeeping role, Gorbachev called for the de-ideologization of relations
amongst states. As `end of history' theorists such as Fukuyama argued, all parts
of the world would now irresistibly gravitate towards a single model of
economic and political development, based on liberal democracy.
This was a very Western idea but for Asia and the Middle East this didn't
have much effect or meaning. It is a very similar feeling as WWI and
Woodrow Wilson and WWII and the UN. WWI ends with Hitler, WWII with
the Cold War and this world order with 9/11.
The post-Cold War world order appeared to pass its first series of major tests
with ease, helping to fuel liberal optimism:
Iraq's annexation of Kuwait in 1990 led to the construction of a broad
western and Islamic alliance that, through the (First) Gulf War of 1991
brought about the expulsion of Iraqi forces Three Kings they then
put in a bunch of sanctions which were then the starting point for the
second Gulf War 2003
Disintegration of the former Yugoslavia 1991 saw the first use of the
Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) (renamed
o Instrumental in helping to find a diplomatic resolution, even
though the UN didn't take the lead militarily NATO did
Since 1990 the Security Council has approved non-military
enforcement measures on numerous occasions for instance in
relation to Afghanistan, Angola, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Haiti, Iraq,
Rwanda, Somalia, the former Yugoslavia etc.
Measures of military enforcement, usually linked to peacekeeping
(technique designed to preserve the peace when fighting has been halted)
operations have become much more common.
However this did not last long and it is mostly seen as a catchphrase as
opposed to something grounded in a developed strategic vision. There were
Heywood: pages 44-45, 217-219, 339 & 441
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also many problematic questions to these aims. The advent of superpower
cooperation was only a manifestation of Soviet weakness and owed much to
the personal relationship between Bush Sr and Gorbachev.
Moreover, alternative interpretations of the post-Cold War world order were
not slow in emerging: The rise of a new world disorder: release of tensions
the Cold War had controlled a common enemy promoted cohesion.…read more