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Electronegativity is the ability to attract the bonding electrons in a covalent bond
Atoms with strong electron pulling power in covalent bonds are said to be highly electronegative.
Fluorine is the most electronegative element.
Oxygen, nitrogen chlorine are also strongly electronegative.
In a covalent bond between two atoms of different
electronegativities, the bonding electrons are pulled
towards the more electronegative atom.
This makes the bond polar.
The covalent bonds in diatomic elements are non-polar
because the atoms have equal electronegativities.…read more

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Whether a molecule has a permanent dipole depends on its shape and the polarity of its bonds.
1. In a simple molecule, like hydrogen bromide, the polar bond gives the whole molecule a permanent
dipole ­ it's a polar molecule.
2. A more complicated molecule may have several polar bonds.
If the polar bonds are arranged so they point in opposite directions, they'll cancel each other out.
The molecule is non-polar overall.
3.…read more

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Intermolecular forces are forces between molecules.
They are much weaker than covalent, ionic or metallic bonds.
Permanent Dipole ­ Permanent Dipole
Permanent dipoles occur when a molecule has two atoms bonded
together which have substantially different electronegativities so
that one atom attracts the shared electrons much more than the
Molecules with a permanent dipole are polar molecules.
One side of the molecule is positive, one is negative.…read more

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Amines are organic derivatives of ammonia .
Ammonia has three hydrogen atoms bonded to a central
nitrogen, whereas amines have one or more alkyl groups
substituted for hydrogen. Ammonia
Like ammonia, the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom
is responsible for the three main properties of amines.…read more

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Solubility of Amines
Amines can form hydrogen bonds to water.
Because of this strong attraction between amine
molecules and water molecules, amines with small
alkyl groups are soluble.
Amines with larger alkyl groups are less soluble
because the alkyl groups disrupt the hydrogen
bonding in water.
Amines are Bases
A base is a proton acceptor.
Amines act as bases because they accept protons.…read more

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Amines as Nucleophiles
Ammonia can act as a nucleophile with the lone pair of electrons on the N atom attacking
electrophiles, such as the positively polarised carbon atom in halogenoalkanes.
Primary amines react with halogenoalkanes to form secondary amines. A nucleophile is
an electron pair
The primary amine is acting as a nucleophile. donor
It attacks the + carbon in the halogenoalkane.
The secondary amine formed in this reaction can go on to react with another molecule of
halogenoalkane to make a tertiary amine.…read more

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Amides contain the functional group: CONH2
Primary amide Secondary amide
Formed by the reaction of ammonia with Formed by the reaction of an amine with
an acyl chloride an acyl chloride
Hydrolysis of Amides
Hydrolysis means bond breaking through reaction with water.
When amides are hydrolysed, it is the C-N bond that breaks.
The reaction can be catalysed by acid or alkali, leading to the formation of slightly different products.…read more

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A polymer is a long molecule made up from lots of small molecules called monomers.
Addition Polymerisation
Many polymers are formed in a reaction known as addition polymerisation.
The monomers usually contain C=C double bonds.
The double bonds open up and join together to make long chains called addition polymers.
Condensation Polymerisation
Condensation polymerisation involves two different types of monomers.
Each monomer has at least two functional groups.
Each functional group reacts with a group on another monomer to form a link, creating polymer chains.…read more

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Condensation Polymers
When an NH2 group reacts with the ­COOH group in a
carboxylic acid, a secondary amide group is formed, with the structure:
This type of reaction, in which two molecules react together to form a large molecule with the
elimination of a small molecule such as water is called a condensation reaction.…read more


Sasha Dean

Thank You - this is by far one of the best revision sources I have seen. :)

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